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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Fushun Kou ◽  
Yuan Cheng ◽  
Lei Shi ◽  
Jiajing Liu ◽  
Yuyue Liu ◽  

BackgroundPatients with long-duration ulcerative colitis (UC) had a higher risk of developing ulcerative colitis-associated carcinogenesis (UCAC) when compared to those with short-duration UC. This study aimed to discover the biomarker for cancer surveillance related to disease duration.MethodsThe microarrays were divided into short-duration (<10 years) UC, long-duration (≥10 years) UC, UCAC, and normal groups in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of GEO and the hub genes of the selected weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) were intersected to obtain the overlapping genes. Among these genes, the key gene was identified by using the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, the cytoHubba of Cytoscape, and the expression levels. Also, immunofluorescence of human colonic mucosa and animal experiment were used to validate the expression trend of the key gene in the progress of UC developing into UCAC.ResultsLipocalin-2 (LCN2) was more relevant with disease duration of UC and significantly negatively correlated with the risk of UCAC. The expression level of LCN2 in short-duration UC was higher than that of long-duration UC (P < 0.01), long-duration UC was higher than that of UCAC (P = 0.001), and UC and UCAC were all higher than that of the normal (P < 0.001). We then discovered that the expression trend of LCN2 in blood and stool samples was consistent with that in colorectal mucosa.ConclusionThe research indicates that LCN2 could be a novel biomarker to evaluate cancer surveillance related to disease duration of developing UC into UCAC. Compared with that of blood samples, stool detection of LCN2 may have more advantages for diagnosis value of early stage of UCAC as a complement to colonoscopy surveillance.

2022 ◽  
Guy Trudel ◽  
Nibras Shahin ◽  
Timothy Ramsay ◽  
Odette Laneuville ◽  
Hakim Louati

AbstractAnemia in astronauts has been noted since the first space missions, but the mechanisms contributing to anemia in space flight have remained unclear. Here, we show that space flight is associated with persistently increased levels of products of hemoglobin degradation, carbon monoxide in alveolar air and iron in serum, in 14 astronauts throughout their 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. One year after landing, erythrocytic effects persisted, including increased levels of hemolysis, reticulocytosis and hemoglobin. These findings suggest that the destruction of red blood cells, termed hemolysis, is a primary effect of microgravity in space flight and support the hypothesis that the anemia associated with space flight is a hemolytic condition that should be considered in the screening and monitoring of both astronauts and space tourists.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Lobna F. El Toony ◽  
Andrew N. Ramzy ◽  
Mohamed A. A. Abozaid

Abstract Background The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by the presence of hypertension. Therefore, proper control of BP in diabetic hypertensive patients is essential. Few studies have specifically investigated the prognostic significance of central BP in Egyptian populations with diabetes and hypertension and its relation with cardiovascular outcome. This study aims to evaluate relation between central BP and diabetic composite cardiovascular complications. Results Diabetic patients with CVD were significantly older (p value < 0.01), obese (p value < 0.01) with long duration of diabetes (p value < 0.001) and had significantly higher peripheral and central systolic and diastolic BP and higher [email protected](p values < 0.01) than those without CVD. Regarding the metabolic parameters, they had significantly higher fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and higher blood cholesterol levels (p values < 0.001), higher LDL (p value < 0.01), triglycerides levels (p value = 0.014), and microalbuminuria (p value = 0.028). Logistic regression analysis found increased BMI, central systolic BP, and [email protected] were independent predictors of composite CVD (p values < 0.05). Conclusions There is a pattern of favorability towards central rather than peripheral BP indices to predict the occurrence of CVD in diabetic patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Eduardo Rosa ◽  
Eugene Lyskov ◽  
Mikael Grönkvist ◽  
Roger Kölegård ◽  
Nicklas Dahlström ◽  

2022 ◽  
Haimanot Ewnetu Hailu ◽  
Belachew Dinku ◽  
Jimmawork Wondimu ◽  
Bilisuma Girma

Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease is a global public health important disease that is associated with life threatening outcomes including renal failure and premature mortality unless diagnosed and treated promptly. Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension are the two major causes of chronic kidney disease worldwide. This study is aimed to determine prevalence and associated factors of chronic kidney disease among diabetes mellitus and hypertensive patients at Ambo town public hospitals, EthiopiaMethods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ambo University referral and general hospitals on 308 study participants. The participants were interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire when they come for follow up at a chronic illness follow-up clinic. The patient charts were reviewed to retrieve information regarding medications, blood pressure, serum Creatinine and glucose level. A chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation was used to estimate Glomerular filtration rate from serum Creatinine. Data were analyzed SPSS version 23 for statistical analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with chronic kidney disease. Variables with a p-value below 0.2 at bivariable analysis were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between dependent and independent variable and p-value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.Results: A total of 308 diabetes mellitus and hypertensive patients were included in the study from Ambo town public hospitals. Of which 156 (50.6%) participants were female with mean (± SD) age of 47.15 ± 12.06 years. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (stage 3–5) was 20.5% with (95% CI: 16%-25%). Long duration of hypertension (AOR=4.89, 95% CI=1.93-12.40), elevated systolic blood pressure (>140mmHG) (AOR=3.20, 95% CI=1.36-7.51), family history (AOR=3.36, 95% CI=1.56-7.24) and age greater than 55 years (AOR=2.17, 95% CI=1.09-4.31) were predictors of chronic kidney disease.Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease was high. Older age, elevated SBP, long duration of hypertension and family history of kidney disease were independent predictors of chronic kidney disease. A preventive plan is mandatory to reduce the disease and complications in the community.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 516
Ekata Kaushik ◽  
Vivek Prakash ◽  
Om Prakash Mahela ◽  
Baseem Khan ◽  
Adel El-Shahat ◽  

Increased deployment of variable renewable energy (VRE) has posed significant challenges to ensure reliable power system operations. As VRE penetration increases beyond 80%, the power system will require long duration energy storage and flexibility. Detailed uncertainty analysis, identifying challenges, and opportunities to provide sufficient flexibility will help to achieve smooth operations of power system networks during the scenario of high share of VRE sources. Hence, this paper presents a comprehensive overview of the power system flexibility (PSF). The intention of this review is to provide a wide spectrum of power system flexibility, PSF drivers, PSF resources, PSF provisions, methods used for assessment of flexibility and flexibility planning to the researchers, academicians, power system planners, and engineers working on the integration of VRE into the utility grid to achieve high share of these sources. More than 100 research papers on the basic concepts of PSF, drivers of the PSF, resources of PSF, requirement of the PSF, metrics used for assessment of the flexibility, methods and approaches used for measurement of flexibility level in network of the power system, and methods used for the PSF planning and flexibility provisions have been thoroughly reviewed and classified for quick reference considering different dimensions.

2022 ◽  
Benjamin J. De Corte ◽  
Sean J. Farley ◽  
Kelsey A. Heslin ◽  
Krystal L. Parker ◽  
John H. Freeman

To act proactively, we must predict when future events will occur. Individuals generate temporal predictions using cues that indicate an event will happen after a certain duration elapses. Neural models of timing focus on how the brain represents these cue-duration associations. However, these models often overlook the fact that situational factors frequently modulate temporal expectations. For example, in realistic environments, the intervals associated with different cues will often covary due to a common underlying cause. According to the 'common cause hypothesis,' observers anticipate this covariance such that, when one cue's interval changes, temporal expectations for other cues shift in the same direction. Furthermore, as conditions will often differ across environments, the same cue can mean different things in different contexts. Therefore, updates to temporal expectations should be context-specific. Behavioral work supports these predictions, yet their underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Here, we asked whether the dorsal hippocampus mediates context-based timing, given its broad role in context-conditioning. Specifically, we trained rats with either hippocampal or sham lesions that two cues predicted reward after either a short or long duration elapsed (e.g., tone-8s / light-16s). Then, we moved rats to a new context and extended the long-cue's interval (e.g., light-32s). This caused rats to respond later to the short cue, despite never being trained to do so. Importantly, when returned to the initial training context, sham rats shifted back toward both cues' original intervals. In contrast, lesion rats continued to respond at the long cue's newer interval. Surprisingly, they still showed contextual modulation for the short cue, responding earlier like shams. These data suggest the hippocampus only mediates context-based timing if a cue is explicitly paired and/or rewarded across distinct contexts. Furthermore, as lesions did not impact timing measures at baseline or acquisiton for the long cue's new interval, our data suggests that the hippocampus only modulates timing when context is relevant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 748
Damian Jozef Flis ◽  
Emilia Gabriela Bialobrodzka ◽  
Ewa Aleksandra Rodziewicz-Flis ◽  
Zbigniew Jost ◽  
Andzelika Borkowska ◽  

This study investigates the effect of Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on blood and skeletal muscle metabolites level and skeletal muscle activity of enzymes related to energy metabolism after long-duration swimming. To evaluate whether Dex treatment, swimming, and combining these factors act on analyzed data, rats were randomly divided into four groups: saline treatment non-exercise and exercise and Dex treatment non-exercised and exercised. Animals in both exercised groups underwent long-lasting swimming. The concentration of lipids metabolites, glucose, and lactate were measured in skeletal muscles and blood according to standard colorimetric and fluorimetric methods. Also, activities of enzymes related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolism were measured in skeletal muscles. The results indicated that Dex treatment induced body mass loss and increased lipid metabolites in the rats’ blood but did not alter these changes in skeletal muscles. Interestingly, prolonged swimming applied after 9 days of Dex treatment significantly intensified changes induced by Dex; however, there was no difference in skeletal muscle enzymatic activities. This study shows for the first time the cumulative effect of exercise and Dex on selected elements of lipid metabolism, which seems to be essential for the patient’s health due to the common use of glucocorticoids like Dex.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Matan Yah Ben Zion ◽  
Yaelin Caba ◽  
Alvin Modin ◽  
Paul M. Chaikin

AbstractWhile motile bacteria display rich dynamics in dense colonies, the phoretic nature of artificial micro-swimmers restricts their activity when crowded. Here we introduce a new class of synthetic micro-swimmers that are driven solely by light. By coupling a light absorbing particle to a fluid droplet we produce a colloidal chimera that transforms optical power into propulsive thermo-capillary action. The swimmers’ internal drive allows them to operate for a long duration (days) and remain active when crowded, forming a high density fluid phase. We find that above a critical concentration, swimmers form a long lived crowded state that displays internal dynamics. When passive particles are introduced, the dense swimmer phase can re-arrange to spontaneously corral the passive particles. We derive a geometrical, depletion-like condition for corralling by identifying the role the passive particles play in controlling the effective concentration of the micro-swimmers.

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