nausea and vomiting
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2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Robed Amin ◽  
Mohammad Jahid Hasan ◽  
Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan ◽  
Md Abdur Rafi ◽  
Rafiqul Islam ◽  

Abstract Background Chikungunya is a severely debilitating disease. Bangladesh witnessed one of the largest outbreaks in 2017. Here, we described the clinical profile of the chikungunya outbreak in Bangladesh and its heterogeneity across three hotspots. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 432 individuals interviewed from the outpatient department of three study sites (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sitakundu Upazilla of Bangladesh) after confirmation by the study physicians. Both laboratory-confirmed cases and probable cases were recruited between July and October 2017. Results Of all, 18% (79) were laboratory confirmed, and 353 82% (335) were probable cases. The male:female ratio was almost equal (1.09:1), and the predominant age group was 18–59 years. The mean age of the presentation was 36.07 ± 13.62 (SD) years. Fever and arthralgia were the most common presentations and were present in > 95% of cases. Other frequent symptoms were fatigue, myalgia, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Approximately half of the patients had arthritis and erythematous rash. Arthritis was predominant in Chittagong city, while maculopapular rash was not observed in Sitakunda city. However, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting are more common among patients in Dhaka city. Significant heterogeneity of clinical manifestations was present across the three hotspots (p < 0.05 for all). Both confirmed and probable cases shared similar characteristics except muscle ache (p = 0.22) and rash (p = 0.37). Conclusion The clinical profile of chikungunya virus-induced disease displays significant location-related heterogeneity in Bangladesh during a large outbreak. Although the causes of such differences are unclear, improved public and medical personnel education on this condition may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

Hamid Farhangi ◽  
Ali Ghasemi ◽  
Mojgan Bahari ◽  
Zohreh Alirezaei ◽  
Akram Rabbani Javadi ◽  

Background: Nausea and vomiting are among the most important side-effects associated with chemotherapy in children with cancer, affecting the quality of their lives. Clinical guidelines for selecting antiemetics are effective in reducing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario (POGO) CINV guideline with that of conventional arbitrary therapies for CINV in 82 children aged 6 months to 16 years old. Out of 177 cycles of chemotherapy, in 101 cycles patients were treated according to POGO-CINV Guideline; in the other 76 cycles, patients were treated with arbitrary types and doses of antiemetics. Then, vomiting in the first 24 hours after chemotherapy in both groups was measured and compared. Results: In this study, 82 patients hospitalized in the Hematology Department of Dr. Sheikh Children’s Hospital were enrolled, of whom 48 patients (58.7%) were boys and 34 (41.3%) were girls. The mean age of patients was 6.24±4.47 years (6 months to 16 years). The results of the current study showed that using a protocol for the prevention of vomiting based on the patient’s age and the type of chemotherapy is superior to conventional management of CINV. Findings showed that the frequency of nausea and vomiting in the protocol group was significantly reduced in comparison with the control group (p˂0.005). Moreover, a reduction in the frequency of nausea and vomiting was quite significant in the sub-categories of the protocol group who had received high-risk or moderate-risk emetogenic drugs (p˂0.005). Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that using the POGO guideline, which takes into account the patient’s age and the type of chemotherapy, is more effective than arbitrary management of CINV, particularly in children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Zhennan Xiao ◽  
Bo Long ◽  
Zeji Zhao

Background and Objectives. Opioids are essential in pain management after laparoscopic colorectal surgery while large dose may induce constipation and pneumonia. Ample evidence has demonstrated that postoperative analgesia can improve sleep quality. But the effects of improvement in sleep quality on postoperative pain have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of improving preoperative sleep quality by zolpidem on intraoperative analgesia and postoperative pain. Methods. A prospective, randomized study was conducted with 88 patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The experimental group (S group, n = 44) was given 10 mg of zolpidem tartrate one night before the surgical procedure, while no medication was given to the control group (C group, n = 44). The primary outcome was the intraoperative remifentanil consumption. Sufentanil consumption, average patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) effective press times, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were recorded at 6 h (T1), 12 h (T2), and 24 h (T3) postoperatively. Results. The intraoperative remifentanil consumption was significantly lower in the S group than that in the C group ( p < 0.01 ). Sufentanil consumption at 6 h and 12 h postoperatively was significantly lower in the S group than that in the C group ( p < 0.05 ); average PCA effective press times and VAS scores, at 6 h and 12 h postoperatively, were significantly lower in the S group than those in the C group ( p < 0.01 ); differences between groups 24 h postoperatively were not significant. No significant between-group difference was noted in the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Conclusion. Improving patients’ sleep quality the night before surgical procedure by zolpidem can decrease the usage of intraoperative analgesics and reduce postoperative pain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Giorgia Sforza ◽  
Annalisa Deodati ◽  
Romina Moavero ◽  
Laura Papetti ◽  
Ilaria Frattale ◽  

Objective: The objective of this study is to present the rare case of a young girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism.Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a neurological syndrome characterized by elevated intracranial pressure (&gt; 25 cmH2O) in the absence of intracerebral abnormalities or hydrocephalus. The pathophysiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension is unknown, and rare cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism have been described. It is supposed that hypocalcemia causes decrease in the absorption of cerebrospinal fluid in arachnoidal granulations.Methods: The workup of the girl with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hypoparathyroidism included physical examination, blood tests, diagnostic imaging, and lumbar puncture.Results: We present a 9-year-old female patient who was hospitalized for headache associated with nausea and vomiting for 3 weeks. She underwent an ophthalmologic examination that revealed papilledema. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of 65 cm H2O; cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain computed tomography scan were normal. The patient started taking acetazolamide. Blood tests revealed hypocalcemia associated with high phosphorus level and undetectable PTH hormone, which led us to suspect hypoparathyroidism. She had never had cramps, paraesthesias, or tetany. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs were positive. In the neck ultrasonography, parathyroids were not visible. Oral supplementation with calcitriol and calcium was started. Headache, nausea, and vomiting immediately disappeared after the lumbar puncture, and the papilledema improved gradually.Conclusions: Several anecdotal cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension secondary to hypoparathyroidism have been described. However, our case report is of particular interest, since the child did not present with typical neurological hypoparathyroidism symptoms. Therefore, we recommend that hypoparathyroidism should be included in diagnostic investigations on children with clinical findings of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, because clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism are variable and may involve almost all organ systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chuan Liu ◽  
Guo Zhao ◽  
Danni Qiao ◽  
Lintao Wang ◽  
Yeling He ◽  

Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition that affects up to 70% of pregnant women. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is considered the serious form of NVP, which is reported in 0.3–10.8% of pregnant women. NVP has a relatively benign course, but HG can be linked with some poor maternal, fetal, and offspring outcomes. The exact causes of NVP and HG are unknown, but various factors have been hypothesized to be associated with pathogenesis. With the advance of precision medicine and molecular biology, some genetic factors such as growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) have become therapeutic targets. In our review, we summarize the historical hypotheses of the pathogenesis of NVP and HG including hormonal factors, Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal dysmotility, placenta-related factors, psychosocial factors, and new factors identified by genetics. We also highlight some approaches to the management of NVP and HG, including pharmacological treatment, complementary treatment, and some supporting treatments. Looking to the future, progress in understanding NVP and HG may reduce the adverse outcomes and improve the maternal quality of life during pregnancy.

Rev Rene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. e71133
Eliana Aparecida Carlos ◽  
José Adriano Borgato ◽  
Danielle Cristina Garbuio

Objective: to assess the quality of life of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: a cross-sectional study carried out in the chemotherapy sector with 51 patients able to answer the data collection instruments. For the analyses, we adopted the variance analysis and Student’s t. Results: the health score indicated moderate quality of life and the symptoms nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and dyspnea were the most present. The scores of the global health scale showed differences between age groups and presence of metastasis; diarrhea and financial difficulties showed differences with respect to gender; pain was more cited by those who did not undergo surgery; insomnia and nausea and vomiting were related to the time of treatment. Conclusion: participants had moderate overall health scores and the main functional levels affected by the treatment were social and emotional.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Devaki Nimalan ◽  
Michal Kawka ◽  
Simon Erridge ◽  
Mehmet Ergisi ◽  
Michael Harris ◽  

Abstract Introduction Palliative care aims to improve quality of life through optimal symptom control and pain management. Cannabis-based medicinal products (CBMPs) have a proven role in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there is a paucity of high-quality evidence with regards to the optimal therapeutic regimen, safety, and effectiveness of CBMPs in palliative care, as existing clinical trials are limited by methodological heterogeneity. The aim of this study is to summarise the outcomes of the initial subgroup of patients from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry who were prescribed CBMPs for a primary indication of palliative care, cancer pain and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, including effects on health-related quality of life and clinical safety. Methods A case series from the UK Medical Cannabis Registry of patients, who were receiving CBMPs for the indication of palliative care was undertaken. The primary outcome consisted of changes in patient-reported outcome measures including EQ-5D-5L, General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Single-Item Sleep Quality Scale (SQS), Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Australia-Modified Karnofsky Performance Scale at 1 and 3 months compared to baseline. Secondary outcomes included the incidence and characteristics of adverse events. Statistical significance was defined by p-value< 0.050. Results Sixteen patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 63.25 years. Patients were predominantly prescribed CBMPs for cancer-related palliative care (n = 15, 94%). The median initial CBD and THC daily doses were 32.0 mg (Range: 20.0–384.0 mg) and 1.3 mg (Range: 1.0–16.0 mg) respectively. Improvements in patient reported health outcomes were observed according to SQS, EQ-5D-5L mobility, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression subdomains, EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS and Pain VAS validated scales at both 1-month and 3-months, however, the changes were not statistically significant. Three adverse events (18.75%) were reported, all of which were either mild or moderate in severity. Conclusion This small study provides an exploratory analysis of the role of CBMPs in palliative care in the first cohort of patients since CBMPs legalisation in the UK. CBMPs were tolerated with few adverse events, all of which were mild or moderate and resolved spontaneously. Further long-term safety and efficacy studies involving larger cohorts are needed to establish CBMPs role in palliative care, including comparisons with standard treatments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (1) ◽  
Nathaly Bianka Moraes Fróes ◽  
Francisca Ariane de Souza Arrais ◽  
Priscila de Souza Aquino ◽  
Juliana Cunha Maia ◽  
Marianne Maia Dutra Balsells

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify the effectiveness of auriculotherapy in the treatment of nausea and vomiting through a systematic review of the scientific literature. Methods: it was performed a systematic review of the literature making use of the following data basis: The Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Web of Science, LILACS and Cochrane databases were used. Articles from complete research from randomized controlled clinical trials that describe using auriculotherapy in nausea and vomiting treatment were selected, without restriction of date or language. Results: eleven articles were selected for analysis. The majority approached the population in surgical situations, followed by patients undergoing chemotherapy and pregnant women. As for results, 81% (n=8) of the articles reported that nausea and vomiting were lower in incidence and/or intensity in the intervention group. Conclusions: the review provided relevant data on the effects of auriculotherapy in nausea and vomiting treatment, with a decrease in the intensity and frequency of these symptoms in different populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 226 (1) ◽  
pp. S22-S23
Torri D. Metz ◽  
Amanda A. Allshouse ◽  
Gwendolyn A. McMillin ◽  
Robert M. Silver ◽  
Marian P. Jarlenski

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-37
Nazima Memon ◽  
Juhi Bagga

Background: Lower segment caesarean sections (LSCS) are commonly done under spinal anaesthesia. Although spinal anaesthetic techniques are relatively safe and associated with quick and uneventful recovery, post-operative pain is a major concern after effect of spinal anaesthesia weans off. Other than pain postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the important side effects of spinal anaesthesia. Steroids by virtue of their anti-inflammatory effect is expected to reduce pain consequent upon inflammation and many studies have shown their efficacy in reducing pain as well as PONV in post-operative patients. Aims and Objectives: Primary objective of the study was to evaluate efficacy of single-dose dexamethasone in reducing post-operative pain. The secondary objectives were to analyse effect of single-dose dexamethasone on hemodynamic stability as well as incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind comparative study in which 60 patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anaesthesia were included on the basis of a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The patients were divided into two groups: Group D: 30 patients who received IV dexamethasone 8 mg (2 ml) intravenously just before giving spinal anesthesia. Group N: 30 patients who received Normal saline (2 ml) immediately before spinal anesthesia. In both groups, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory rate, severity of post-operative pain, and incidence of PONV was compared. P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Patients in Group D had significantly less severe post-operative pain (as assessed by the Visual analog scale) and incidence of PONV (P<0.05). Significantly less post-operative rescue analgesia was required in patients who received single dose of intravenous dexamethasone (P<0.05). In terms of hemodynamic stability, both groups were found to be comparable with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Single-dose dexamethasone is effective in reducing post-operative pain as well as incidence of PONV in patients undergoing LSCS under spinal anesthesia.

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