event reporting
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Raed Taleb Al-Zubi ◽  
Abdulraheem Ahmed Kreishan ◽  
Mohammad Qasem Alawad ◽  
Khalid Ahmad Darabkh

<span>In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered one of the important topics for researchers due to their wide applications in our life. Several researches have been conducted to improve WSNs performance and solve their issues. One of these issues is the energy limitation in WSNs since the source of energy in most WSNs is the battery. Accordingly, various protocols and techniques have been proposed with the intention of reducing power consumption of WSNs and lengthen their lifetime. Cluster-oriented routing protocols are one of the most effective categories of these protocols. In this article, we consider a major issue affecting the performance of this category of protocols, which we call the intra/inter-cluster event-reporting problem (IICERP). We demonstrate that IICERP severely reduces the performance of a cluster-oriented routing protocol, so we suggest an effective Solution for IICERP (SIICERP). To assess SIICERP’s performance, comprehensive simulations were performed to demonstrate the performance of several cluster-oriented protocols without and with SIICERP. Simulation results revealed that SIICERP substantially increases the performance of cluster-oriented routing protocols.</span>

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lisiane Freitas Leal ◽  
Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro ◽  
Luiz Júpiter Carneiro de Souza ◽  
Felipe Ferre ◽  
Daniel Marques Mota ◽  

Background: In Brazil, studies that map electronic healthcare databases in order to assess their suitability for use in pharmacoepidemiologic research are lacking. We aimed to identify, catalogue, and characterize Brazilian data sources for Drug Utilization Research (DUR).Methods: The present study is part of the project entitled, “Publicly Available Data Sources for Drug Utilization Research in Latin American (LatAm) Countries.” A network of Brazilian health experts was assembled to map secondary administrative data from healthcare organizations that might provide information related to medication use. A multi-phase approach including internet search of institutional government websites, traditional bibliographic databases, and experts’ input was used for mapping the data sources. The reviewers searched, screened and selected the data sources independently; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Data sources were grouped into the following categories: 1) automated databases; 2) Electronic Medical Records (EMR); 3) national surveys or datasets; 4) adverse event reporting systems; and 5) others. Each data source was characterized by accessibility, geographic granularity, setting, type of data (aggregate or individual-level), and years of coverage. We also searched for publications related to each data source.Results: A total of 62 data sources were identified and screened; 38 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion and were fully characterized. We grouped 23 (60%) as automated databases, four (11%) as adverse event reporting systems, four (11%) as EMRs, three (8%) as national surveys or datasets, and four (11%) as other types. Eighteen (47%) were classified as publicly and conveniently accessible online; providing information at national level. Most of them offered more than 5 years of comprehensive data coverage, and presented data at both the individual and aggregated levels. No information about population coverage was found. Drug coding is not uniform; each data source has its own coding system, depending on the purpose of the data. At least one scientific publication was found for each publicly available data source.Conclusions: There are several types of data sources for DUR in Brazil, but a uniform system for drug classification and data quality evaluation does not exist. The extent of population covered by year is unknown. Our comprehensive and structured inventory reveals a need for full characterization of these data sources.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Renjun Yang ◽  
Nuoya Yin ◽  
Ying Zhao ◽  
Dandan Li ◽  
Xuanling Zhang ◽  

Background: Due to the embryotoxicity found in animal studies and scarce clinical data in pregnant women, it is still controversial whether entecavir (ETV) and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) are safe during human pregnancy. This is of paramount importance when counseling pregnant women with hepatitis B virus (HBV) on risks and benefits to their offspring.Objective: To quantify the association between administration of ETV and ADV in pregnant women and occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during pregnancy (AEDP).Methods: Pregnancy reports from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) were used to perform a retrospective analysis of AEDP associated with ETV or ADV. Disproportionality analysis estimating the reporting odds ratio (ROR) was conducted to identify the risk signals. A signal was defined as ROR value &gt;2, and lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI)&gt; 1.Results: A total of 1,286,367 reports involving AEDP were submitted to FAERS by healthcare professionals. Of these, there were 547 cases reporting ETV and 242 cases reporting ADV as primary suspected drugs. We found a moderate or strong signal for increased risk of spontaneous abortion when comparing ETV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and telbivudine (LdT), with RORs equal to 1.58 (95% CI, 1.09–2.30) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.04–4.36), respectively. However, when the included reports were limited to indication containing HBV infection, no signals for increased AEDP were detected. Futhermore, a strong signal for increased risk of spontaneous abortion was identified in patients with HBV infection when comparing ETV or ADV with lamivudine (LAM), with RORs of 3.55 (95% CI, 1.54–8.18) and 2.85 (95% CI, 1.15–7.08), respectively.Conclusion: We found a strong signal for increased risk of spontaneous abortion in patients with HBV infection taking ETV or ADV, in comparison with those prescribed with LAM. Moreover, no obvious signal association of human teratogenicity with exposure to ETV or ADV was identified in fetuses during pregnancy. Nevertheless, owing to the limitations of a spontaneous reporting database, which inevitably contains potential biases, there is a pressing need for well-designed comparative safety studies to validate these results in clinical practice.

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