kinase inhibitors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Romain Dalla-Torre ◽  
Vincent Crenn ◽  
Pierre Menu ◽  
Bertrand Isidor ◽  
Pascale Guillot ◽  

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder caused by the dysregulation of the Rat Sarcoma/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway and characterized by short stature, heart defects, pectus excavatum, webbed neck, learning disabilities, cryptorchidism, and facial dysmorphia. Villonodular synovitis is a joint disorder most common in young adults characterized by an abnormal proliferation of the synovial membrane. Multifocal Villonodular synovitis is a rare disease whose recurrent nature can make its management particularly difficult. Currently, there is no systemic therapy recommended in diffuse and recurrent forms, especially because of the fear of long-term side effects in patients, who are usually young. Yet, tyrosine kinase inhibitors seem promising to reduce the effects of an aberrant colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) production at the origin of the synovial nodule proliferation. We present here the case of a 21-year-old woman with NS associated to diffuse multifocal villonodular synovitis (DMVS). Our clinical case provides therapeutic experience in this very rare association. Indeed, in association with surgery, the patient improved considerably: she had complete daily life autonomy, knee joint amplitudes of 100° in flexion and 0° in extension and was able to walk for 10 min without any technical assistance. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient suffering from DMVS associated with a Noonan syndrome treated with Glivec® (oral administration at a dosage of 340 mg/m2 in children, until disease regression) on a long-term basis.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Sixian Chen ◽  
Aizhen Fu ◽  
Yuan Lu ◽  
Wei Lu ◽  
Yongfeng Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Lung carcinoma is a common geriatric disease. The development of genotype-targeted therapies greatly improved the management of lung carcinoma. However, the treatment for old patients can be more complex than that for young individuals. Results To investigate the benefits of genetic detection for older patients with lung carcinoma, we explored the genomic profiling of 258 patients with more than 55 years using a targeted next generation sequencing, and some of these patients were treated with targeted therapies based on the results of genomic detection. KRAS codon 61 mutations were found in 15.2% KRAS-mutated patients, which tend to be co-existing with other classical activating mutations other than codons 12/13. Acquired EGFR C797S mutations were identified in 2 cases and ERBB2 amplification was identified in 1 case. All these 3 cases developed resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and showed expected results of their followed therapies. The median progression-free survival and median overall survival of patients treated with molecular targeted therapies were better than those of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy alone. Conclusions Our findings revealed the specific genomic profiles of patients older than 55 years with lung carcinoma and suggested that these old patients have been benefit from the genetic detection, which helped identify druggable mutations and distinguish resistance mechanisms.

Jin Ma ◽  
Gonzalo Sanchez-Duffhues ◽  
Josselin Caradec ◽  
Pascal Benderitter ◽  
Jan Hoflack ◽  

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
James A Timmons ◽  
Andrew Anighoro ◽  
Robert J Brogan ◽  
Jack Stahl ◽  
Claes Wahlestedt ◽  

Insulin resistance (IR) contributes to the pathophysiology of diabetes, dementia, viral infection, and cardiovascular disease. Drug repurposing (DR) may identify treatments for IR; however, barriers include uncertainty whether in vitro transcriptomic assays yield quantitative pharmacological data, or how to optimise assay design to best reflect in vivo human disease. We developed a clinical-based human tissue IR signature by combining lifestyle-mediated treatment responses (>500 human adipose and muscle biopsies) with biomarkers of disease status (fasting IR from >1200 biopsies). The assay identified a chemically diverse set of >130 positively acting compounds, highly enriched in true positives, that targeted 73 proteins regulating IR pathways. Our multi-gene RNA assay score reflected the quantitative pharmacological properties of a set of epidermal growth factor receptor-related tyrosine kinase inhibitors, providing insight into drug target specificity; an observation supported by deep learning-based genome-wide predicted pharmacology. Several drugs identified are suitable for evaluation in patients, particularly those with either acute or severe chronic IR.

Riccardo Bixio ◽  
Davide Bertelle ◽  
Francesca Pistillo ◽  
Elisa Pedrollo ◽  
Antonio Carletto ◽  

Abstract Introduction Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction, often associated with other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis present an increased prevalence of myasthenia gravis compared to the general population. While these two diseases share some therapeutic options, such as glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab, there are no guidelines for treating concomitant disease. We aim to review the available evidence and to discuss the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic options in patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis. Method We described three patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis and we performed a systematic review of the associated literature. Results A 48-year-old man and two women (48 and 55 years old) with concomitant diagnoses of active rheumatoid arthritis and well-controlled myasthenia gravis are described. They were treated with methotrexate, leflunomide, upadacitinib, and adalimumab. None of them experienced changes in their myasthenic symptoms. We found 9 additional cases from our literature review. Methotrexate, rituximab, upadacitinib, diphenyl sulfone, auranofin, and loxoprofen sodium did not show an impact on the seven patients with previously well-controlled myasthenia. Glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab proved effective in active myasthenia gravis and arthritis. Conflicting data emerged for Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors. Conclusions Although the available evidence remains scarce, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options. The role of tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain. Eventually, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for these patients. Key Points• To date, the only evidence on the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant myasthenia gravis derives from case reports.• Based on the review of the available case reports and on the cases we described, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options, while the role of Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain.• Based on the cases we described, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for patients with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Michael J. Duffy ◽  
John Crown

Biomarkers that predict likely response or resistance to specific therapies are critical in personalising treatment for cancer patients. Such biomarkers are now available for an increasing number of anti-cancer therapies, especially targeted therapy and immunotherapy. The gold-standard method for determining predictive biomarkers requires tumour tissue. Obtaining tissue, however, is not always possible and even if possible, the amount or quality of tissue obtained may be inadequate for biomarker analysis. Tumour DNA, however, can be released into the bloodstream, giving rise to what is referred to as circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). In contrast to tissue, blood can be obtained from effectively all patients in a minimally invasive and safe manner. Other advantages of blood over tissue for biomarker testing include a shorter turn-around time and an ability to perform serial measurements. Furthermore, blood should provide a more complete profile of mutations present in heterogeneous tumours than a single-needle tissue biopsy. A limitation of blood vis-à-vis tissue, however, is lower sensitivity and, thus, the possibility of missing an actionable mutation. Despite this limitation, blood-based predictive biomarkers, such as mutant EGFR for predicting response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and mutant PIK3CA for predicting response to alpelisib in combination with fulvestrant in advanced breast cancer, may be used when tissue is unavailable. Although tissue remains the gold standard for detecting predictive biomarkers, it is likely that several further blood-based assays will soon be validated and used when tissue is unavailable or unsuitable for analysis.

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