Negative Effects
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Liuwang Kang ◽  
Haiying Shen

For a modern vehicle, if the sensor in a vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS) or controller area network (CAN) bus is attacked during a brake process, the vehicle will lose driving direction control and the driver’s life will be highly threatened. However, current methods for detecting attacks are not sufficiently accurate, and no method can provide attack mitigation. To ensure vehicle ABS security, we propose an attack detection method to accurately detect both sensor attack (SA) and CAN bus attack in a vehicle ABS, and an attack mitigation strategy to mitigate their negative effects on the vehicle ABS. In our attack detection method, we build a vehicle state space equation that considers the real-time road friction coefficient to predict vehicle states (i.e., wheel speed and longitudinal brake force) with their previous values. Based on sets of historical measured vehicle states, we develop a search algorithm to find out attack changes (vehicle state changes because of attack) by minimizing errors between the predicted vehicle states and the measured vehicle states. In our attack mitigation strategy, attack changes are subtracted from the measured vehicle states to generate correct vehicle states for a vehicle ABS. We conducted the first real SA experiments to show how a magnet affects sensor readings. Our simulation results demonstrate that our attack detection method can detect SA and CAN bus attack more accurately compared with existing methods, and also that our attack mitigation strategy almost eliminates the attack’s effects on a vehicle ABS.

Özerk Yavuz

Epidemic diseases can be extremely dangerous with its hazarding influences. They may have negative effects on economies, businesses, environment, humans, and workforce. In this paper, some of the factors that are interrelated with COVID-19 pandemic have been examined using data mining methodologies and approaches. As a result of the analysis some rules and insights have been discovered and performances of the data mining algorithms have been evaluated. According to the analysis results, JRip algorithmic technique had the most correct classification rate and the lowest root mean squared error (RMSE). Considering classification rate and RMSE measure, JRip can be considered as an effective method in understanding factors that are related with corona virus caused deaths.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Shaofeng Yuan ◽  
Ying Gao

PurposeThis study investigated the potential negative effects of a sponsored team's losing performance on audiences' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand. Shedding light on the moderating role of sponsoring brand familiarity among audiences and audience team identification regarding such negative effects, the study establishes when sports sponsorship may incur risk to a sponsoring brand.Design/methodology/approachThree experimental designs (audience as stimulus of a team's losing vs control condition) were used to indicate whether and when losing performance influences participants' trust and purchase intention toward the sponsoring brand.FindingsThe participants in the losing condition report lower brand trust and purchase intention. Brand trust mediates the relationship between losing results and decreased purchase intention. The negative effects of losing on brand trust and purchase intention only appear when the sponsoring brand has low familiarity among audiences and only for audiences with low identification.Practical implicationsThe strategy of a brand with low familiarity sponsoring a team that frequently loses has risks and is not worth advocating. However, if an unknown brand has already sponsored a team that often loses, the efforts to cultivate audiences' identification with the team can reduce the potential risks.Originality/valueThe affirmed negative effects of losing performance on brand trust and purchase intention have value for firm sponsorship decisions. This study contributes to the sponsorship literature by revealing two boundary conditions (sponsoring brand familiarity and audiences' team identification) for those negative effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 973
Federica Barbagallo ◽  
Sandro La La Vignera ◽  
Rossella Cannarella ◽  
Laura M. Mongioì ◽  
Vincenzo Garofalo ◽  

Obesity is a major current public health problem of global significance. A progressive sperm quality decline, and a decline in male fertility, have been reported in recent decades. Several studies have reported a strict relationship between obesity and male reproductive dysfunction. Among the many mechanisms by which obesity impairs male gonadal function, sirtuins (SIRTs) have an emerging role. SIRTs are highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that play a role in gene regulation, metabolism, aging, and cancer. SIRTs regulate the energy balance, the lipid balance, glucose metabolism, and adipogenesis, but current evidence also indicates a role for SIRTs in male reproduction. However, the majority of the studies have been conducted in animal models and very few have been conducted with humans. This review shows that SIRTs play an important role among the molecular mechanisms by which obesity interferes with male fertility. This highlights the need to deepen this relationship. It will be of particular interest to evaluate whether synthetic and/or natural compounds capable of modifying the activity of SIRTs may also be useful for the treatment of obesity and its effects on gonadal function. Although few studies have explored the role of SIRT activators in obesity-induced male infertility, some molecules, such as resveratrol, appear to be effective in modulating SIRT activity, as well as counteracting the negative effects of obesity on male fertility. The search for strategies to improve male reproductive function in overweight/obese patients is a challenge and understanding the role of SIRTs and their activators may open new interesting scenarios in the coming years.

Cristina R. Córdoba ◽  

At present, secondary victimization of sexual violence is very common and it has negative effects to the victims. Secondary victimization raises the issues of the victims and it originates others. This victimization often associates with justice system but it may create by society, victims’ close environment and mass and social media. The primary objective of that research is to establish secondary victimization’s characteristics in the last years and its linkage with genre stereotypes about victims’ behavior before, during and after sexual violence. These stereotypes are the same in the different countries. In the current study, they assessed 10 cases using news, declarations, videos and sentences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 63
Rosanna Lorrane Francisco dos Reis Matos ◽  
Núbia Nunes de Souza ◽  
Sandro Morais dos Santos ◽  
Aline Ferreira Rafael ◽  
Eduardo Robson Duarte ◽  

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of several arboviruses, and are relevant public health problems. Conventional control, using chemical larvicides have selected resistant Culicidae populations and caused negative effects on the environment and human health. However, the use of plant extracts has represented a sustainable alternative for insect control. Popularly known as Xiriri, Mauritiella armata (Mart.) Burret (Aceraceae) is an abundant palm tree in Vereda ecosystems and has economic and social importance. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the aqueous extract (AE) leaves of this plant on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The mortalities of larvae were analyzed after treatment with four concentrations of the extract, comparing with a negative control using mineral water. The AE promoted 100% efficacy against Ae. aegypti larvae at 7.9 mg/mL. The lethal concentration to promote 90% mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was estimated at 30.57 mg/mL. After chromatographic analyses, flavonoids, catechin and carbohydrates were detected. AE from M. armata leaves presented high larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and represents a promising alternative to be used in vector control.

2022 ◽  
Ali Mohammadpourzeid ◽  
Bohloul Alijani ◽  
Mehry Akbary ◽  
Parviz Zeaieanfirouzabadi

Abstract Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in hydrology, meteorology, and the surface energy balance.The one-window algorithm of Kim et al. Uses Landsat satellite imagery to model the earth's surface temperature.These trends are validated using meteorological data. Two main and basic factors play a major role in the temporal and spatial trend of the thermal islands of Rasht. These two factors of climate change that have occurred in the last two decades in the region of Gilan province and the city of Rasht. The second factor that has greatly enhanced the effect of the first factor is the human factor that has greatly included other urban factors in Rasht, including urban management and proper urban planning in the province and the city of Rasht. These two factors in the temporal and spatial trend of urban thermal islands have caused thermal islands to rapidly increase the growth of the city and urban population from the urban center to the western and southwestern regions and have very negative effects on land use changes and human areas. It has caused the construction of Rasht city.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262022
Kevin B. Smith

Objectives To quantify the effect of politics on the physical, psychological, and social health of American adults during the four-year span of the Trump administration. Methods A previously validated politics and health scale was used to compare health markers in nationally representative surveys administered to separate samples in March 2017 (N = 800) and October 2020 (N = 700). Participants in the 2020 survey were re-sampled approximately two weeks after the 2020 election and health markers were compared to their pre-election baselines. Results Large numbers of Americans reported politics takes a significant toll on a range of health markers—everything from stress, loss of sleep, or suicidal thoughts to an inability to stop thinking about politics and making intemperate social media posts. The proportion of Americans reporting these effects stayed stable or slightly increased between the spring of 2017 and the fall of 2020 prior to the presidential election. Deterioration in measures of physical health became detectably worse in the wake of the 2020 election. Those who were young, politically interested, politically engaged, or on the political left were more likely to report negative effects. Conclusions Politics is a pervasive and largely unavoidable source of chronic stress that exacted significant health costs for large numbers of American adults between 2017 and 2020. The 2020 election did little to alleviate those effects and quite likely exacerbated them.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Minghui Liu ◽  
Chunhua Ju ◽  
Yan Wang

China’s power industry is in a critical transformation period. The new round of power system reform in 2015 will have a profound impact on China’s power industry. Therefore, it’s necessary to analyze the influencing factors of thermal power generation efficiency. Based on the thermal power generation industry related data in China’s 30 provinces from 2005 to 2017, this paper studies the impacts of market segmentation on thermal power generation efficiency in China. And the empirical result shows that the market segmentation exhibit significant negative effects on the thermal power generation efficiency, that is, the thermal power generation efficiency significantly decrease 1.6799 for each unit increase of market segmentation index of thermal power industry. Besides, by decomposing the dynamic thermal power efficiency index, we find that the “innovation effect” is the primary channel for the market segmentation to make effects on the thermal power generation efficiency. Furthermore, our findings are still robust after considering endogenous problems and eliminating the relevant data. Finally, research conclusions of our study paper provide empirical supports for the efficient development of China’s power market.

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