Health Behaviour Change
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 381
Author(s):  
Shaorin Tanira

Background: From health monitoring to health education and from behaviour change to falls sensing and health alerts to the simple pleasure of communication and connectedness, the mobile technologies (smartphone applications) are changing the lives of older adults.Objective: To examine current evidence of use of smartphones by older adults for health purposes (including communication, education, and health monitoring), and understand gaps and challenges in order to inform the design of future systems given the ubiquity of mobile phone technology.Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL and Google scholar databases were searched from October 2016 to January 2017. Keywords used include ‘smartphone apps’, ‘mobile phone’, ‘chronic disease’, ‘chronic condition’, ‘older adults’ and ‘elderly’. A total of 12 articles were selected for quality assessment and grading of evidence.Results: Twelve different articles were found and categorized into nine different clinical domains with specific health related interventions. Articles were focused on diabetes care (2 articles), followed by COPD (2 articles), heart disease (1 article), Alzheimer’s/dementia Care (2 articles), osteoarthritis and pain management (1 article), fall prevention (1 article), colon cancer (1 article), palliative care (1 article), chronic kidney disease (1 article). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, functionality and thereby determining their effectiveness. There were many different clinical domains; however, most of the studies were pilot studies. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. Findings from different studies indicate that the use of mobile phone interventions has the potential to support successful management of chronic conditions and health behaviour change in older adults.Conclusion: Perceived benefits and willingness to use the smartphone apps are high; however, technical training and cost are main concerns. A common problem with elderly users was their reluctance to press buttons due to the fear of breaking something which has been resolved by touch screen technology of the smartphones. However, the advanced user clicked around the screen until he found what he was looking for, while the others spent a lot of time observing the screen and trying to determine the correct step. Promotion of user-friendly apps are expected especially for older adults having a diminished physical and cognitive abilities.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 381-387


2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (2) ◽  
pp. 336-345
Author(s):  
Rabia Ruby Patel ◽  
Tanya Monique Graham

This article examines the South African government’s response to COVID-19 by exploring the strong emphasis that has been placed on South Africans taking personal responsibility for good health outcomes. This emphasis is based on the principles of the traditional Health Belief Model which is a commonly used model in global health systems. More recently, there has been a drive towards other health behaviour change models, like the COM-B model and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW); nonetheless, these remain entrenched within the principles of individual health responsibility. However, the South African experience with the HIV epidemic serves as a backdrop to demonstrate that holding people personally accountable for health behaviour changes has major pitfalls; health risk is never objective and does not take place outside of subjective experience. This article makes the argument that risk-taking health behaviour change in the South African context has to consider community empowerment and capacity building.


2021 ◽  
pp. 026988112110085
Author(s):  
Pedro J Teixeira ◽  
Matthew W Johnson ◽  
Christopher Timmermann ◽  
Rosalind Watts ◽  
David Erritzoe ◽  
...  

Healthful behaviours such as maintaining a balanced diet, being physically active and refraining from smoking have major impacts on the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other serious conditions. The burden of the so-called ‘lifestyle diseases’—in personal suffering, premature mortality and public health costs—is considerable. Consequently, interventions designed to promote healthy behaviours are increasingly being studied, e.g., using psychobiological models of behavioural regulation and change. In this article, we explore the notion that psychedelic substances such as psilocybin could be used to assist in promoting positive lifestyle change conducive to good overall health. Psilocybin has a low toxicity, is non-addictive and has been shown to predict favourable changes in patients with depression, anxiety and other conditions marked by rigid behavioural patterns, including substance (mis)use. While it is still early days for modern psychedelic science, research is advancing fast and results are promising. Here we describe psychedelics’ proposed mechanisms of action and research findings pertinent to health behaviour change science, hoping to generate discussion and new research hypotheses linking the two areas. Therapeutic models including psychedelic experiences and common behaviour change methods (e.g., Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Motivational Interviewing) are already being tested for addiction and eating disorders. We believe this research may soon be extended to help promote improved diet, exercise, nature exposure and also mindfulness or stress reduction practices, all of which can contribute to physical and psychological health and well-being.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 193-206 ◽  
Author(s):  
Omukule Emojong’

With the absence of immunological, pharmacological or any other known medical interventions, the change in norms, behaviour and attitude of the public remains the only possible way that may be considered for prevention and suppression of COVID-19. This disease, which has morphed into a global pandemic, has mobilized outrageous outpouring action worldwide. Despite international and local media attention coupled with overwhelming new facts replete with misinformation and disinformation on COVID-19 from many channels; including interpersonal and social media, efforts to scale up control measures have yielded mixed results. The government and Kenyan media have reported several cases in which the public and leaders flouted these measures thus putting themselves at risk of contracting or spreading the virus. The overarching question is: does fear-arousing communication really matter in behaviour change particularly during a global pandemic of the magnitude of COVID-19? This qualitative study therefore examined the effects of COVID-19 messages on health behaviour change among residents living in the Municipality of Busia, one of the towns that have recorded the highest incidences of confirmed COVID-19 cases as informed by the Extended Parallel Process and Health Belief behavioural change models. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were carried out to establish threat and coping appraisal as a result of COVID-19 messages received from different sources. The study employed a risk behaviour diagnosis assessment that focused on two components of health risk messages, that is, threat and recommended response that addresses efficacy issues. This study found out that despite universal knowledge of COVID-19 and prevention methods, perceived threat especially perceived vulnerability to the virus was low due to misinformation, disinformation and disjointed communication.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. e24028-e24028
Author(s):  
Carolyn Der Vartanian ◽  
Vivienne Milch ◽  
Gail Garvey ◽  
Cleola Anderiesz ◽  
Jane Salisbury ◽  
...  

e24028 Background: Given the impact of COVID-19 on Indigenous and ethnic minority populations observed globally, keeping COVID-19 out of vulnerable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous Australian) communities remains a priority. Compared to non-Indigenous Australians, Indigenous Australians experience disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes due to social disadvantage, increased cancer-related modifiable risk factors, poorer access to health services and lower participation in screening. During the pandemic, cancer-related investigations and treatment reduced significantly in Australia, leading to potential decreases in cancer diagnoses and consequences for future survival outcomes. Concerned about the risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 for Indigenous Australians, as well as worsening cancer outcomes, Cancer Australia undertook strategic health promotion initiatives, to inform and support optimal cancer care. Methods: In consultation with respected Indigenous colleagues to ensure cultural appropriateness of language and information, we published a dedicated webpage titled ‘ Cancer and COVID-19 – what it means for our Mob*’ with tailored information, advice, and links to key resources and support services for Indigenous Australians. We also released a video titled ‘ Act early for our Mob’s Health’, providing targeted, culturally appropriate, consumer-friendly information to encourage Indigenous Australians to see their doctor or Aboriginal Health Worker with symptoms that may be due to cancer. Results: The information hub has been well-received among the Indigenous Australian community, receiving over 3,200 visits, and the social media campaigns have received over 1.4 million impressions and 46,000 video views between mid-March 2020 to mid-February 2021. This campaign has supported proactivity among the Indigenous population in keeping their communities safe during the pandemic, maintaining a population rate of COVID-19 of less than one percent of all confirmed cases in Australia. Conclusions: Culturally appropriate information and resources developed through the process of co-design can help to influence positive health behaviour change in Indigenous populations. We predict that our strategic, multi-channel health promotion campaign is contributing to keeping the Indigenous Australian community safe and informed during the pandemic, with additional work needed to monitor cancer rates and outcomes and address the ongoing information needs of the community. *Mob is a colloquial term to identify a group of Indigenous Australians associated with a family or community from a certain place.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
W Shi ◽  
GLM Ghisi ◽  
L Zhang ◽  
K Hyun ◽  
M Pakosh ◽  
...  

Abstract Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: None. Background Patient education is recommended to increase disease-related knowledge and modify coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Although the importance has been established, there is a lack of knowledge of its efficacy and relative impact of duration on disease-related knowledge and health behaviour outcomes. Purpose It aimed to assess the efficacy of structured patient education on those outcomes in adults with CHD for short-term (less than six months) and long-term (six to 12 months) effect. Methods Eligible randomised controlled trials published in English, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese were searched in seven electronic databases from database inception through 2020. Reference lists, relevant conference lists, and keywords from the Internet were also searched. Outcomes included disease-related knowledge, smoking cessation, medication adherence, physical activity, and healthy dietary behaviour. Results Overall, 73 studies reporting 71 unique trials were included. Participants (n = 24,985) were aged mean 60.5 ± 5.7 years, mostly male (72.5%). About 74% of studies used more than one mode for education delivery, with phone calls and booklets being used the most frequent. Patient education was associated with significant improvement in all outcomes measured in meta-analyses (P < 0.05). In addition, regression analyses showed that a prolonged intervention duration does not significantly improve the outcomes, except for the disease knowledge (p = 0.009) and physical activity (p = 0.026). Conclusions Structured patient education, in a variety of modes and intensities, improves disease-related knowledge and health behaviours in adults with CHD. The findings can be used to guide design of cardiac programs, particularly related to intervention duration in clinical practice. Abstract Figure 1. PRISMA flow diagram


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