Behaviour Change
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Kelly Mackenzie ◽  
Elizabeth Such ◽  
Paul Norman ◽  
Elizabeth Goyder

Prolonged periods of sitting are associated with negative health outcomes, so the increase in sedentary jobs is a public health concern. Evaluation of interventions to reduce workplace sitting have suggested that participatory approaches may be more effective. This paper describes the use of co-production in four diverse organisations. Workshops with staff in each organisation were conducted to develop an organisation-specific strategy. The first workshop involved creative activities to encourage participants to develop innovative suggestions. The second workshop then developed a feasible and acceptable action plan. An ecological approach was used to consider behaviour change determinants at a range of different levels including intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, and environmental-level factors. 41 staff volunteered for workshops (seven in a small business, 16 in a charity, 15 in a local authority, and three in a large corporation). Of those, 27 were able to attend the first workshops and 16 were able to attend the second. Whilst there were some similarities across organisations, the smaller organisations developed a more tailored and innovative strategy than large organisations where there were more barriers to change and a more diverse workforce. Co-production resulted in bespoke interventions, tailored for different organisational contexts, maximising their potential feasibility and acceptability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 78
Hannah Durand ◽  
Jenny Mc Sharry ◽  
Oonagh Meade ◽  
Molly Byrne ◽  
Eanna Kenny ◽  

Background: Effective government communications and leadership are central to the management of pandemics. Behavioural science can offer important insight into the development of such communications strategies. The extent to which established behaviour-change science is reflected in current government messaging campaigns to promote adherence to physical distancing measures in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is unclear. The current study aimed to describe the behaviour-change content of a set of government-issued poster communications for the reopening of schools in Ireland during the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020. Methods: Posters targeting physical distancing behaviours in school settings were retrieved from the Government of Ireland website for analysis. Posters were independently coded for behaviour change techniques (BCTs) using the BCT Taxonomy Version 1, a hierarchically clustered taxonomy of 93 distinct BCTs across 16 groups. The Theories and Techniques tool was used to identify mechanisms of action (MoAs) linked to each of the identified BCTs. Eight posters were independently content-analysed by two members of the research team for BCTs and linked MoAs. Results: Eight unique BCTs from six unique groups were identified in at least one poster. These BCTs were linked with 11 unique MoAs through which behaviour change is theorised to occur. Several theoretically important groups of BCTs, such as Natural Consequences, Social Support, Shaping Knowledge, and Comparison of Behaviour, were underutilised or not included in any of the posters. Conclusion: Future poster communications could benefit from including additional BCTs from key groups, particularly Natural Consequences. This article provides proof-of-concept evidence for future evaluations of government public health communications for behaviour-change content using existing taxonomies and tools.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
K. A. Schmidtke ◽  
K. G. Drinkwater

Abstract Background Human hygiene behaviours influence the transmission of infectious diseases. Changing maladaptive hygiene habits has the potential to improve public health. Parents and teachers can play an important role in disinfecting surface areas and in helping children develop healthful handwashing habits. The current study aims to inform a future intervention that will help parents and teachers take up this role using a theoretically and empirically informed behaviour change model called the Capabilities-Opportunities-Motivations-Behaviour (COM-B) model. Methods A cross-sectional online survey was designed to measure participants’ capabilities, opportunities, and motivations to [1] increase their children’s handwashing with soap and [2] increase their cleaning of surface areas. Additional items captured how often participants believed their children washed their hands. The final survey was administered early in the coronavirus pandemic (May and June 2020) to 3975 participants from Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Participants self-identified as mums, dads, or teachers of children 5 to 10 years old. ANOVAs analyses were used to compare participant capabilities, opportunities, and motivations across countries for handwashing and surface disinfecting. Multiple regressions analyses were conducted for each country to assess the predictive relationship between the COM-B components and children’s handwashing. Results The ANOVA analyses revealed that India had the lowest levels of capability, opportunity, and motivation, for both hand hygiene and surface cleaning. The regression analyses revealed that for Australia, Indonesia, and South Africa, the capability component was the only significant predictor of children’s handwashing. For India, capability and opportunity were significant. For the United Kingdom, capability and motivation were significant. Lastly, for Saudi Arabia all components were significant. Conclusions The discussion explores how the Behaviour Change Wheel methodology could be used to guide further intervention development with community stakeholders in each country. Of the countries assessed, India offers the greatest room for improvement, and behaviour change techniques that influence people’s capability and opportunities should be prioritised there.

Rakhshan Kamran ◽  
Giulia Coletta ◽  
Janet M. Pritchard

Purpose: The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) suggests health behaviour can be modified by enhancing knowledge of health benefits and outcome expectations of changing behaviour, improving self-efficacy (confidence), and developing goals to overcome barriers to behaviour change. This study aimed to determine the impact of student-led nutrition workshops on participants’ confidence related to SCT constructs for making dietary choices that align with evidence-based nutrition recommendations. Methods: Level-4 Science students developed and delivered 9 workshops on nutrition recommendations for the prevention and management of age-related diseases. Participants attending the workshops completed pre- and post-surveys to assess SCT constructs. For each SCT construct, participants rated their confidence on a 10-point Likert scale. The number (%) of participants who rated their confidence as ≥8/10 on the pre- and post-surveys were compared using the χ2 test. Results: Sixty-three community members (60% female, mean ± SD age 71 ± 7 years) attended the workshops. The number of participants rating confidence as ≥8/10 for each SCT construct increased after the workshops (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Undergraduate students can positively influence community members’ confidence for making nutrition-related decisions. Involving students in interventions where SCT-structured workshops are used may help conserve health care resources and reach older adults who may not have access to dietitian services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 381
Shaorin Tanira

Background: From health monitoring to health education and from behaviour change to falls sensing and health alerts to the simple pleasure of communication and connectedness, the mobile technologies (smartphone applications) are changing the lives of older adults.Objective: To examine current evidence of use of smartphones by older adults for health purposes (including communication, education, and health monitoring), and understand gaps and challenges in order to inform the design of future systems given the ubiquity of mobile phone technology.Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL and Google scholar databases were searched from October 2016 to January 2017. Keywords used include ‘smartphone apps’, ‘mobile phone’, ‘chronic disease’, ‘chronic condition’, ‘older adults’ and ‘elderly’. A total of 12 articles were selected for quality assessment and grading of evidence.Results: Twelve different articles were found and categorized into nine different clinical domains with specific health related interventions. Articles were focused on diabetes care (2 articles), followed by COPD (2 articles), heart disease (1 article), Alzheimer’s/dementia Care (2 articles), osteoarthritis and pain management (1 article), fall prevention (1 article), colon cancer (1 article), palliative care (1 article), chronic kidney disease (1 article). Areas of interest studied included feasibility, acceptability, functionality and thereby determining their effectiveness. There were many different clinical domains; however, most of the studies were pilot studies. Current work in using mobile phones for older adult use are spread across a variety of clinical domains. Findings from different studies indicate that the use of mobile phone interventions has the potential to support successful management of chronic conditions and health behaviour change in older adults.Conclusion: Perceived benefits and willingness to use the smartphone apps are high; however, technical training and cost are main concerns. A common problem with elderly users was their reluctance to press buttons due to the fear of breaking something which has been resolved by touch screen technology of the smartphones. However, the advanced user clicked around the screen until he found what he was looking for, while the others spent a lot of time observing the screen and trying to determine the correct step. Promotion of user-friendly apps are expected especially for older adults having a diminished physical and cognitive abilities.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 381-387

Trials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Alexander Ooms ◽  
Susan J. Dutton ◽  
Scott Parsons ◽  
Beth Fordham ◽  
Caroline Hing ◽  

Abstract Background Total hip (THR) and total knee replacements (TKR) are two highly successful orthopaedic procedures that reduce pain for people with osteoarthritis. Previous evidence suggests that physical activity, at best, remains the same pre- to post-operatively, and in some instances declines. The PEP-TALK trial evaluates the effects of a group-based, behaviour change intervention on physical activity following a THR or TKR. Methods PEP-TALK is an open, phase III, pragmatic, multi-centre, parallel, two-arm, two-way superiority randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of usual care plus a behaviour change therapy compared with usual care alone following primary THR or TKR. The primary outcome is the UCLA Activity Score at 12 months post-randomisation which will be analysed using a linear mixed effects model. Secondary outcomes measured at 6 months and 12 months after randomisation include the UCLA Activity Score, Lower Extremity Functional Scale, Oxford Hip/Knee Score, Numerical Rating Scale for Pain, Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EuroQoL EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS and complications or adverse events. Full details of the planned analysis approaches for the primary and secondary outcomes, as well as the planned sensitivity analyses to be undertaken due to the COVID-19 pandemic, are described here. The PEP-TALK study protocol has been published previously. Discussion This paper provides details of the planned statistical analyses for the PEP-TALK trial. This is aimed to reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias and enhance transparency in reporting. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials database, ISRCTN Number: 29770908. Registered on October 2018.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Paul Blaise Issock Issock ◽  
Mercy Mpinganjira ◽  
Mornay Roberts-Lombard

Purpose This study aims to provide empirical evidence and a different perspective on the relevance of the traditional marketing mix in social marketing programmes. This is a response to the ongoing debate about the (in)compatibility of the traditional marketing mix (the 4Ps) in the field of social marketing. In doing so, this study examines the important role that the stages of behaviour change play in influencing the effectiveness of traditional marketing mix elements in the context of recycling in South African households. Design/methodology/approach This study follows a quantitative method, relying on a survey of 699 heads of households in South Africa. Multigroup analysis and structural equation modelling were applied to test the impact of stages of changes on the potential effect of marketing mix elements on the intention to recycle household waste. Findings The results established that although the traditional marketing mix elements have a marginal effect on the intention to recycle household waste, further analyses revealed that this impact of the marketing mix is contingent on the stage of change in which the target audience is found. Thus, the findings indicated that the marketing mix elements significantly influence the intention to recycle when the target audience is at the contemplation and preparation phases. Originality/value Whilst both critics and proponents of the adoption of the traditional marketing mix in social marketing initiatives have provided relevant arguments, the debate had remained largely theoretical. This study discusses the limitations of the traditional marketing mix in behaviour change programmes and the need for a segmented approach based on the stages of behaviour change when using the 4Ps. However, given the hegemony of the 4Ps in the social marketing literature, this study sheds light on the appropriate “Ps” to activate to influence recycling behavioural intention at different stages of change.

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