sexual and reproductive health
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Abdul-Aziz Seidu ◽  
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw ◽  
Bright Opoku Ahinkorah ◽  
Leonard Baatiema ◽  
Samuel Dery ◽  

Abstract Background Sexual and reproductive health education among girls and women has several reproductive health benefits, including improved contraceptive knowledge, contraception use at first intercourse, increased chance of contraceptive use in a lifetime, and effective usage of contraceptives. It is however not clear whether women/girls in urban slums who have had sexual and reproductive health education would likely utilize contraception. This study sets out to test the hypothesis that Accra slum women who have had sex education have higher chances of ever using contraception. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among reproductive aged women in two slums (i.e. Agbogbloshie and Old Fadama) in Accra, Ghana. A sample size of 691, made up of respondents who provided responses to the question on ever used contraception, sex education as well as those with complete information on all the other variables of interest was considered in this study. Binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine association between sexual and reproductive health education and ever use of contraception. Crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at p-value less than 0.05 were used to assess the strength of the association between the outcome and independent variables. Results More than half (56.73%) of the women have never received sexual and reproductive health education. Most of the respondents (77.28%) had ever used contraceptives. Women who had no form of sexual and reproductive health education had lower odds of ever using contraception (OR = 0.641, 95% CI 0.443, 0.928) and this persisted after controlling for the effect of demographic factors (AOR = 0.652, 95% CI 0.436, 0.975] compared to those who have ever received any form of sex education. Non-married women as well as women who were exposed to media (newspapers/radio/television) were also more likely to use contraceptives in slums in Accra, Ghana. Conclusion The study revealed a relatively low prevalence of sex education among women in urban slums in Accra. However, sex education was found to increase the odds of ever use of contraception. These findings call for intensified sexual and reproductive health education among reproductive aged girls and women in urban slums in Accra using existing informal social networks and local media platforms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Katja Isaksen ◽  
Ingvild Sandøy ◽  
Joseph Zulu ◽  
Andrea Melberg ◽  
Sheena Kabombwe ◽  

Abstract Background Numerous studies have documented inconsistent reporting of sexual behaviour by adolescents. The validity and reliability of self-reported data on issues considered sensitive, incriminating or embarrassing, is prone to social-desirability bias. Some studies have found that Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (ACASI) that removes the personal interaction involved in face-to-face interviews, decreases item non-response and increases reporting of sensitive behaviours, but others have found inconsistent or contradictory results. To reduce social desirability bias in the reporting of sensitive behaviours, face-to-face interviews were combined with ACASI in a cluster randomized trial involving adolescents in Zambia. Methods To explore adolescent girls’ experiences and opinions of being interviewed about sexual and reproductive health, we combined Focus Group Discussions with girl participants and individual semi-structured interviews with teachers. This study was done after the participants had been interviewed for the 6th time since recruitment. Young, female research assistants who had conducted interviews for the trial were also interviewed for this study. Results Respondents explained often feeling shy, embarrassed or uncomfortable when asked questions about sex, pregnancy and abortion face-to-face. Questions on sexual activity elicited feelings of shame, and teachers, research assistants and girls alike noted that direct questions about sexual activities limit what the participant girls may be willing to share. Responding to more indirect questions in relation to the context of a romantic relationship was slightly easier. Efforts by interviewers to signal that they did not judge the participants for their behavior and increased familiarity with the interviewer reduced discomfort over time. Although some appreciated the opportunity to respond to questions on their own, the privacy offered by ACASI also provided an opportunity to give false answers. Answering on tablets could be challenging, but participants were reluctant to ask for assistance for fear of being judged as not conversant with technology. Conclusion Strategies to avoid using overly direct language and descriptive words, asking questions within the context of a romantic relationship and a focus on establishing familiarity and trust can reduce reporting bias. For the use of ACASI, considerations must be given to the context and characteristics of the study population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Heather M. Marlow ◽  
Michael Kunnuji ◽  
Adenike Esiet ◽  
Funsho Bukoye ◽  
Chimaraoke Izugbara

In humanitarian settings, ~35 million girls and young women of reproductive age (15–24) are in urgent need of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Young women and girls in humanitarian contexts are particularly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, gender-based violence, and early and forced marriage. We sought to understand girls' and young women's experiences with unwanted pregnancy, abortion, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gender-based violence (GBV), and forced marriage in an IDP camp in Northeastern Nigeria. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with girls aged 15–19 (N = 13; 8 single and 5 married) and young women aged 20–24 (N = 12; 3 single and 9 married). All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The participants in our study fled from and witnessed violence to arrive in the IDP camp with little material support. Lack of necessities, especially food, has driven many to sex in exchange for goods or into forced marriages. This, in turn, leads to increased unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Participants had limited knowledge about contraception, and some information about SRH services available in the camp, but overall, knowledge and utilization of SRH services was low.

2022 ◽  
Jennifer Mueller ◽  
Marielle Kirstein ◽  
Alicia VandeVusse ◽  
Laura Lindberg

Background: Abortion is a difficult-to-measure behavior with extensive survey underreporting, which compromises the ability to study and monitor abortion. The purpose of this study was to improve our understanding of how women interpret and respond to survey items asking if they have ever had an abortion. Methods: We developed multiple new questions hypothesized to improve abortion reporting, using approaches that aim to clarify which experiences to report as an induced abortion; reduce the stigma and sensitivity of induced abortion; reduce the sense of intrusiveness of asking about abortion; and increase the motivation to report. We conducted cognitive interviews with cisgender women aged 18-49 in two US states (N=64) to iteratively assess these new approaches and questions for improving abortion reporting. Results: Our findings suggest that including abortion as part of a list of other sexual and reproductive health services, asking a yes/no question about lifetime experience of abortion instead of asking about number of abortions, and developing an improved introduction to abortion questions may help to elicit more accurate survey reports. Conclusions: Opportunities exist to improve survey measurement of abortion. Reducing underreporting of abortion in surveys has the potential to improve sexual and reproductive health research that relies on pregnancy histories.

José Ignacio Nazif-Munoz ◽  
Rose Chabot

AbstractSexual and reproductive health and rights policies (SRHRPs) and their association with reproductive and non-reproductive behavior require precise theoretical and methodological frames. By studying the case of Colombia, we move forward with a comprehensive framework that considers simultaneously multiple SRHRP conceptualizations and their impacts over time on induced pregnancy terminations (IPT). With a mixed-method approach, we first map the evolution of SRHRPs and then analyze their direct and indirect effects on IPTs, using the provision of contraceptive methods by the government, female use of contraceptive methods, and conversations with health professionals in a mediation approach. We build a unique data set from more than 2100 policy documents, and then use data on 81,760 women (20–40 years) from four waves (2000–2015) of Colombia’s Demographic and Health Surveys. We find that SRHRPs are directly associated with an 18% reduction in reported IPTs. Associations between these variables are explained by the increased use of modern contraceptive methods (6%), and the government’s provision of those contraceptive methods (13%). Studies interested in the impact of SRHRPs need to consider not only the direct effects of legal changes on abortion outcomes but also show changes over time may operate through different sub-programs embedded in these policies, such as access to contraceptive methods and family planning. This will add further nuances to how SRHRPs are both multilayered and implemented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Neena R. Kapoor ◽  
Ana Langer ◽  
Areej Othman ◽  
Jewel Gausman

Abstract Background The need for youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services has been identified as a national policy priority in Jordan, but there remains limited data on service utilization among adolescents, especially those who are unmarried, and there is limited training for healthcare practitioners (HCPs) in providing SRH services to youth. The objectives of this study are to 1) describe the most common reasons for encounters that HCPs have with unmarried youth clients about SRH topics and 2) explore differences in SRH services provided to unmarried youth by provider in Jordan. Methods This cross-sectional study used a two-stage cluster-randomized sampling scheme to sample HCPs (doctors, nurses, and midwives) from health facilities in four governorates in Jordan. Data were collected on practitioner demographics, facility characteristics, and self-reports of having provided services related to nine common SRH concerns to unmarried girls or boys between the ages of 15–19 years. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the associations between provider and facility characteristics, client sex, and types of services rendered. Results In total, 578 providers participated in the study (110 male and 468 female). Practitioners most commonly reported seeing unmarried female youth for concerns related to puberty (38.5%) and family planning (18.51%) and unmarried male youth for concerns of puberty (22.49%) or condoms (11.59%). In total, 64.45, 64.61 and 71.19% of midwives, nurses, and doctors reported having provided any SRH service to an unmarried adolescent. While practitioners most often reported seeing clients of the same sex, male practitioners were more likely to report having seen a female client for STIs (9.09% vs. 4.27% p = 0.040), and providing general information about sexual activity (12.73% vs. 5.77% p = 0.011) than female providers. Conclusions Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of HCPs have provided SRH services to unmarried youth – challenging existing perceptions of the SRH care-seeking practices of unmarried youth in this conservative context.

2022 ◽  
Nkechi C. Obisie-Nmehielle ◽  
Ishmael Kalule-Sabiti ◽  
Martin Palamuleni

Abstract Background: For countries to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) especially SDG3.7- universal access to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) care services including information and education for family planning, immigrant youth must be ensured access to SRH services. This study examines the determinants of knowledge about family planning (KFP) and access to SRH services by sexually active immigrant youth in Hillbrow, South Africa.Methods: This cross-sectional study of 467 immigrant youth aged 18-34 years used a multistage-sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires on socio-demographic, migration, KFP and access to SRH services from government health facilities. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine levels of KFP and access to SRH services among 437 sexually active youth. Results: The main sources of information on SRH issues were radio/television (38.7%) and friends (22.8%). Over half of the respondents have adequate KFP, while two out of five indicated a lack of access to SRH services from government health facilities. In the adjusted models, the determinants of having KFP were being a female (AOR= 3.85, CI: 2.33–6.35, belonging to the age groups 25–29 years (AOR=2.13, CI: 1.12–4.04; and 30–34 years (AOR=3.88, CI: 2.00–7.53); belonging to the middle and rich wealth index (AOR=1.84, CI: 1.05–3.20) and (AOR=2.61 (1.34–5.08) respectively. Not having received information about family planning (AOR=0.16, CI=0.09–0.28) and not using a contraceptive at the time of the survey (AOR=0.36, CI: 0.18–0.70) were associated with reduced odds of KFP. The determinants of having access to government health facility for SRH services were being a female (AOR=2.95, CI: 1.87–4.65), being 30–34 years of age (AOR=1.91, CI: 1.08–3.39), and not having received information about family planning (AOR=0.44, CI=0.27–0.73). Conclusion: Majority of the survey respondents lack access to information about family and SRH services provided by government health facilities, which resulted in them depending on unreliable sources of information about SRH issues. There is a need to advocate for universal access to SRH services, inclusive of immigrant youth in South Africa, to curb negative SRH outcomes and to achieve SDG 3.7.

10.2196/29969 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. e29969
Hua Wang ◽  
Sneha Gupta ◽  
Arvind Singhal ◽  
Poonam Muttreja ◽  
Sanghamitra Singh ◽  

Background Leveraging artificial intelligence (AI)–driven apps for health education and promotion can help in the accomplishment of several United Nations sustainable development goals. SnehAI, developed by the Population Foundation of India, is the first Hinglish (Hindi + English) AI chatbot, deliberately designed for social and behavioral changes in India. It provides a private, nonjudgmental, and safe space to spur conversations about taboo topics (such as safe sex and family planning) and offers accurate, relatable, and trustworthy information and resources. Objective This study aims to use the Gibson theory of affordances to examine SnehAI and offer scholarly guidance on how AI chatbots can be used to educate adolescents and young adults, promote sexual and reproductive health, and advocate for the health entitlements of women and girls in India. Methods We adopted an instrumental case study approach that allowed us to explore SnehAI from the perspectives of technology design, program implementation, and user engagement. We also used a mix of qualitative insights and quantitative analytics data to triangulate our findings. Results SnehAI demonstrated strong evidence across fifteen functional affordances: accessibility, multimodality, nonlinearity, compellability, queriosity, editability, visibility, interactivity, customizability, trackability, scalability, glocalizability, inclusivity, connectivity, and actionability. SnehAI also effectively engaged its users, especially young men, with 8.2 million messages exchanged across a 5-month period. Almost half of the incoming user messages were texts of deeply personal questions and concerns about sexual and reproductive health, as well as allied topics. Overall, SnehAI successfully presented itself as a trusted friend and mentor; the curated content was both entertaining and educational, and the natural language processing system worked effectively to personalize the chatbot response and optimize user experience. Conclusions SnehAI represents an innovative, engaging, and educational intervention that enables vulnerable and hard-to-reach population groups to talk and learn about sensitive and important issues. SnehAI is a powerful testimonial of the vital potential that lies in AI technologies for social good.

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