Reproductive Health
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2021 ◽  
pp. e1-e11
Author(s):  
Lauren Tingey ◽  
Rachel Chambers ◽  
Hima Patel ◽  
Shea Littlepage ◽  
Shauntel Lee ◽  
...  

Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of the Respecting the Circle of Life program (RCL) among Native American youths 11 to 19 years of age residing in a rural reservation community in the southwestern United States. Methods. Between 2016 and 2018, we conducted a randomized controlled trial of the RCL program with 534 Native youths. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 9 and 12 months after the intervention. We conducted intention-to-treat analyses based on study group randomization. Results. At 9 months, intervention participants had significantly better condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), higher intentions to use condoms (P = .024) and abstain from sex (P = .008), and better contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001) than control participants, as well as better condom use (P = .032) and contraceptive use (P = .002) negotiation skills. At 12 months, intervention participants had significantly better sexual and reproductive health knowledge (P = .021), condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001), and contraceptive use negotiation skills (P = .004) than control participants. Intervention participants reported significantly more communication with their parents about sexual and reproductive health than control participants at both 9 and 12 months (P = .042 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusions. The RCL program has a significant impact on key factors associated with pregnancy prevention among Native youths and should be used as an adolescent pregnancy prevention strategy. Trial Registration.  Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT02904629. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 16, 2021: e1–e11. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306447 )


Author(s):  
N. V. Kruchinina

This article analyzes the demographic problems in Russia and PRC. It is concluded that the assisted reproductive technologies (In vitro fertilization, surrogacy, etc.) are effective methods of treating infertility, and thus partially settling those demographic problems. Different views on human rights of reproduction are analyzed. It justifi es the need to protect reproductive health. The number of cases of the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Russia and China is increasing. Legislation governing legal relations in this area needs further development.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruby Doryn Mcharo ◽  
Philippe Mayaud ◽  
Sia E. Msuya

Abstract Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among young adults in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is still a major public health challenge. Early school-based sexuality education programs and sexual health information sharing between teachers, parents and young people have been considered protective against the sexual health risks to which young people are exposed. There is, however, limited information on the preferred choices of “where”, “how” and “from whom” young people would like to receive SRH information. We aimed to describe the experience and preferences of young people regarding their SRH education and learning and in particular communication with their parents/guardians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among randomly selected students aged 18-24y attending Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs) in Mbeya, Tanzania. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on SRH education received, ability to discuss SRH matters with a parent/guardian and SRH information gaps encountered during their early sexual experience. Results We enrolled 504 students from 5 HLIs, of whom 446 (88.5%) reported to be sexually active, with mean age at sexual debut of 18.4y (SD 2.2). About 61% (307/504) of the participants found it difficult to discuss or did not discuss SRH matters with their parent/guardian while growing up. Learning about SRH matters was reported from peers (30.2%) and teacher-led school curriculum (22.7%). There was a strong gender-biased preference on SRH matters’ discussions, female and male participants preferred discussions with adults of their respective sex. Peers (18.2%), media (16.2%) and schools (14.2%) were described as the preferred sources of SRH information. On recalling their first sexual experience, sexually-initiated participants felt they needed to know more about sexual feelings, emotions and relationships (28.8%), safer sex (13.5%), how to be able to say ‘No’ (10.7%) and how to use a condom correctly (10.2%). Conclusion Young people have a gender preference when it comes to learning about SRH matters from their parents; however, such conversations seldom occur. Community health education should focus on building skills of parents on parent-child communication on SRH matters so as to empower them to confidently initiate and convey accurate SRH information. Comprehensive SRH education and skills building need to be strengthened in the current school SRH curriculum in order to meet the demand and needs of students and increase the competence of teachers.


Author(s):  
Katrin Langton

Infant feeding and baby tracking apps remain extremely popular mobile applications, downloaded by millions of parents to facilitate the feeding and care of children in their first year of life. These applications are commonly considered as part of a wider ecology of apps to manage reproductive health, which are typically gendered in design. Unsurprisingly, research on infant feeding apps to date has focussed on analysing these applications through a critical feminist lens, problematising the surveillance and disciplining of women’s bodies, since the tracking of infant care tracks the caregiver as much as the baby. These issues relate to broader societal trends around the datafication of family life, as well as participatory and co-surveillance practices, which ultimately support data-dependent surveillance capitalism. Yet, the predominant focus on critical perspectives on these technologies tends to construct their uses as disempowering, and their users as lacking agency. This work-in-progress paper explores how contemporary parenthood is constructed and mediated through the functionalities and technological design of infant feeding apps. It employs a feminist lens, while striking a balance between critical analysis and the identification of opportunities for user resistance, agency and empowerment. The app walkthrough method was used to examine two infant feeding applications, the commercial Feed Baby and the public health-oriented mum2mum. The study’s findings indicate that infant feeding applications are diverse in design and functionalities, providing opportunities for resistance and empowerment, that complicate and challenge understandings of parenting apps as (dis)empowering technologies.


Author(s):  
Rachel Logan ◽  
Dominika Seidman

Abstract Purpose of Review This review describes lessons learned from longer acting contraception and employs a reproductive justice lens to inform expansion of emerging HIV prevention technologies. Recent Findings Reproductive justice is a framework that advocates for the promotion of universal sexual and reproductive freedoms, particularly among historically marginalized communities. This framework takes a holistic view of individuals and sees the interconnections between sexual health, reproductive health, and overall health. Employing a sexual and reproductive justice perspective is essential to understanding and helping to mitigate the role intersecting structural, sexual, and reproductive oppressions, including those demonstrated through promotion of longer acting contraception, and can critically inform rollout of future prevention technologies, such as longer acting HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Summary This review highlights the need for researchers, clinicians, and policymakers to apply lessons learned from contraception and specifically focuses on principles of reproductive justice to offer expanding HIV prevention options.


Adolescents ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 363-390
Author(s):  
Salima Meherali ◽  
Mehnaz Rehmani ◽  
Sonam Ali ◽  
Zohra S. Lassi

Adolescent access to quality sexual and reproductive health and rights has been a major issue in most low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review aims to identify the relevant community and school-based interventions that can be implemented in LMICs to promote adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and rights. We identified 54 studies, and our review findings suggested that educational interventions, financial incentives, and comprehensive post-abortion family planning services were effective in increasing their knowledge and use of Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (ASRHR) services, such as contraception, which led to a decrease in unwanted pregnancies. However, we found inconclusive and limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for improved violence prevention and adolescent behavior towards safe sexual practices. More rigorous studies with long-term follow-ups are needed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 145
Author(s):  
Fannie Kachale ◽  
Imelda Mahaka ◽  
Fatima Mhuriro ◽  
Mary Mugambi ◽  
Joseph Murungu ◽  
...  

Background: Though substantial progress has been made to curb the HIV epidemic, high rates of new HIV infections persist among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting critical gaps in reaching them with integrated HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. With the scale-up of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and multiple novel HIV prevention products on the horizon, countries have a unique opportunity to expand innovative approaches to deliver comprehensive, integrated HIV/SRH services. Methods: This article is a comparative analysis of findings from rapid landscaping analyses in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe to highlight cross-country trends and context-specific realities around HIV/SRH integration. The analyses in Kenya and Zimbabwe were completed by Ministries of Health (MOH) and the HIV Prevention Market Manager project and include 20 health facility assessments, 73 key informant interviews and six community dialogues. In Malawi, the analysis was completed by the MOH and Georgetown University Center for Innovation in Global Health and includes 70 key informant interviews and a review of national policies and program implementation in Blantyre. Findings were validated through a review of literature and policies in each country. Results: The policy environment in all three countries is conducive to HIV/SRH integration, though operationalization continues to present challenges, with most policies preceding and not accounting for oral PrEP rollout. National coordination mechanisms, youth-friendly health services and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs are promising practices, while siloed and resource-constrained health systems, limited provider capacity, lack of support for demand generation and structural factors exacerbate barriers to achieving integration. Conclusions: As new HIV prevention products are introduced, demand for integrated HIV/SRH services is likely to grow. Investing in HIV/SRH integration can help to ensure sustainable, government-led responses to the HIV epidemic, streamline service delivery and improve the health outcomes and lives of AGYW.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Saroj Pachauri ◽  
Ash Pachauri ◽  
Komal Mittal

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