reproductive health
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Andreea Carp-Veliscu ◽  
Claudia Mehedintu ◽  
Francesca Frincu ◽  
Elvira Bratila ◽  
Simona Rasu ◽  

As the coronavirus pandemic is far from ending, more questions regarding the female reproductive system, particularly fertility issues, arise. The purpose of this paper is to bring light upon the possible link between COVID-19 and women’s reproductive health. This review emphasizes the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the hormones, endometrium and menstrual cycle, ovarian reserve, follicular fluid, oocytes, and embryos. The results showed that endometrial samples did not express SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Regarding the menstrual cycle, there is a large range of alterations, but they were all reversible within the following months. The ovarian reserve was not significantly affected in patients recovering from both mild and severe infection in most cases, except one, where the levels of AMH were significantly lower and basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were increased. All COVID-19 recovered patients had positive levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the follicular fluid. The amount of retrieved and mature oocytes and the fertilization rate were unharmed in three studies, except for one study, where the quantity of retrieved and mature oocytes was reduced in patients with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The numbers of blastocysts, top-quality embryos, and euploid embryos were affected in most of the studies reviewed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Abdul-Aziz Seidu ◽  
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw ◽  
Bright Opoku Ahinkorah ◽  
Leonard Baatiema ◽  
Samuel Dery ◽  

Abstract Background Sexual and reproductive health education among girls and women has several reproductive health benefits, including improved contraceptive knowledge, contraception use at first intercourse, increased chance of contraceptive use in a lifetime, and effective usage of contraceptives. It is however not clear whether women/girls in urban slums who have had sexual and reproductive health education would likely utilize contraception. This study sets out to test the hypothesis that Accra slum women who have had sex education have higher chances of ever using contraception. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among reproductive aged women in two slums (i.e. Agbogbloshie and Old Fadama) in Accra, Ghana. A sample size of 691, made up of respondents who provided responses to the question on ever used contraception, sex education as well as those with complete information on all the other variables of interest was considered in this study. Binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine association between sexual and reproductive health education and ever use of contraception. Crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at p-value less than 0.05 were used to assess the strength of the association between the outcome and independent variables. Results More than half (56.73%) of the women have never received sexual and reproductive health education. Most of the respondents (77.28%) had ever used contraceptives. Women who had no form of sexual and reproductive health education had lower odds of ever using contraception (OR = 0.641, 95% CI 0.443, 0.928) and this persisted after controlling for the effect of demographic factors (AOR = 0.652, 95% CI 0.436, 0.975] compared to those who have ever received any form of sex education. Non-married women as well as women who were exposed to media (newspapers/radio/television) were also more likely to use contraceptives in slums in Accra, Ghana. Conclusion The study revealed a relatively low prevalence of sex education among women in urban slums in Accra. However, sex education was found to increase the odds of ever use of contraception. These findings call for intensified sexual and reproductive health education among reproductive aged girls and women in urban slums in Accra using existing informal social networks and local media platforms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Shatha Elnakib ◽  
May Elsallab ◽  
Maha Abdel Wanis ◽  
Shadia Elshiwy ◽  
Nishan Prasana Krishnapalan ◽  

Abstract Background Egypt has made progress in delaying age at marriage, but child marriage continues to be practiced in many places across the country. This study investigates the impacts of child marriage on the health and wellbeing of girls residing in urban Egypt using a multi-method approach. Methods The quantitative component leveraged data from the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and focused on (1) reproductive health, (2) maternal health and (3) social outcomes among a subsample of ever-married urban women ages 20–24 (N = 1041). Simple and multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between child marriage and the three sets of outcomes. The qualitative component drew from 11 focus groups, 23 in-depth interviews, and 13 key informant interviews conducted in three urban sites in Egypt. The data was thematically analyzed using a combination of inductive and deductive coding. Results The prevalence of marriage under age 18 was 13.22%. Child marriage was significantly associated with ever use of contraception (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.95 95% CI 1.67–5.19), multiple births (AOR 12.93 95% CI 5.45–30.72), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.20 95% CI 1.34–3.63), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.89 95% CI 1.11–3.23). Many of these associations disappeared after adjusting for marriage duration. Girls married under age 18 had larger spousal age gaps (AOR 2.06; 95% CI 1.24–3.41) and higher odds of FGM (AOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.11–4.13). They were significantly more likely to report receiving no ANC care (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19–0.80), and less likely to deliver through C-section (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI 0.34–0.83). Consequences emerging from the qualitative data centered around five themes: (1) Access to and use of sexual and reproductive health services; (2) exposure to FGM; (3) marriage and birth registration; (4) marital relations; and (5) relationship with in-laws. Conclusion Findings provide important insights into the practice of child marriage in urban areas in Egypt and illustrate a range of adverse consequences associated with the practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Katja Isaksen ◽  
Ingvild Sandøy ◽  
Joseph Zulu ◽  
Andrea Melberg ◽  
Sheena Kabombwe ◽  

Abstract Background Numerous studies have documented inconsistent reporting of sexual behaviour by adolescents. The validity and reliability of self-reported data on issues considered sensitive, incriminating or embarrassing, is prone to social-desirability bias. Some studies have found that Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interviewing (ACASI) that removes the personal interaction involved in face-to-face interviews, decreases item non-response and increases reporting of sensitive behaviours, but others have found inconsistent or contradictory results. To reduce social desirability bias in the reporting of sensitive behaviours, face-to-face interviews were combined with ACASI in a cluster randomized trial involving adolescents in Zambia. Methods To explore adolescent girls’ experiences and opinions of being interviewed about sexual and reproductive health, we combined Focus Group Discussions with girl participants and individual semi-structured interviews with teachers. This study was done after the participants had been interviewed for the 6th time since recruitment. Young, female research assistants who had conducted interviews for the trial were also interviewed for this study. Results Respondents explained often feeling shy, embarrassed or uncomfortable when asked questions about sex, pregnancy and abortion face-to-face. Questions on sexual activity elicited feelings of shame, and teachers, research assistants and girls alike noted that direct questions about sexual activities limit what the participant girls may be willing to share. Responding to more indirect questions in relation to the context of a romantic relationship was slightly easier. Efforts by interviewers to signal that they did not judge the participants for their behavior and increased familiarity with the interviewer reduced discomfort over time. Although some appreciated the opportunity to respond to questions on their own, the privacy offered by ACASI also provided an opportunity to give false answers. Answering on tablets could be challenging, but participants were reluctant to ask for assistance for fear of being judged as not conversant with technology. Conclusion Strategies to avoid using overly direct language and descriptive words, asking questions within the context of a romantic relationship and a focus on establishing familiarity and trust can reduce reporting bias. For the use of ACASI, considerations must be given to the context and characteristics of the study population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-39
Sri Susilawati ◽  
Winda Windiyani ◽  
Dewi Nurdianti ◽  
Ade Kurniawati

Limited knowledge of students about adolescent reproductive health is a problem that is often found in Islamic boarding school. The behavior of teenagers who often wear clothes or towels alternating with friends will be very influential for the reproductive health of adolescents, and it is feared that it could become a medium of spread of covid-19. Therefore, it is necessary to establish youth counselors and training through the provision of information as well as counseling practices on Youth Care Health Services (PKPR) and Socialization of New Habit Adaptation (AKB) after covid-19 in Al-Ittihaad Islamic Boarding School Purbaratu. The purpose of this PKM activity is to train and provide information on the importance of maintaining health by paying attention to adolescent reproductive health behaviors in Islamic boarding school with the implementation of health protocols / adaptation of new habits (AKB), which in the end participants are able to relay the information that has been obtained during the training process to others. The method in this activity is the establishment of youth counselors from santri sons and daughters. Providing training by directly training participants conduct counseling practices to their peers in the post-covid-19 PKPR and AKB. Conduct health protocols to prevent the spread of covid-19 virus in Islamic boarding school. The result of this activity is the increasing knowledge and skills of peer counsellors about PKPR and AKB post-covid-19 in Islamic boarding school.Conclusion is that participants can know and better understand and apply directly the material about PKPR and AKB post-covid-19 in Islamic boarding school.

2022 ◽  
Ona L McCarthy ◽  
Melissa J Palmer ◽  
Anasztazia Gubijev ◽  
Kaye Wellings ◽  
Sue Mann ◽  

Abstract Background: The narrative surrounding women’s reproductive health has shifted from a medical model to an emphasis on reproductive well-being over different life-stages. We developed and piloted a tracker survey for monitoring women’s reproductive health and well-being in England, recruiting respondents online. This paper reports on the success of the online recruitment strategies in achieving a sample proportionally representative of the England general population.Methods: Recruitment was through Facebook and Instagram advertisements and dissemination through Twitter and a blog. At the end week one, the sample was reviewed and compared to the 2011 Census England population. From week two, recruitment targeted under-represented groups. Key data were compared with prevalence estimates from the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).Results: Between 1 July-17 August 2021, 13,962 people initiated the online survey, with 11,578 completing it. Numbers were low initially, but peaked at 1700 survey initiations per day after increasing the daily advertisement budget on day seven. At the end of week one, minority ethnic groups and people without a degree or equivalent were under-represented. From week two, we altered the advertisement settings to show to people whose profile indicated they were a ‘high school leaver’ had ‘up to some high school’, worked in industries that do not typically require a degree or lived in local authorities with a high proportion of ethnic minority residents. This had a modest effect, with the final sample short of proportional representation in terms of ethnicity and education but close in terms of region and age. Compared to Natsal-3, we found consistency in the proportion of respondents reporting an abortion and a live birth in the last year, however, the proportion of our sample reporting ever having experienced infertility was significantly higher than in Natsal-3, as was the proportion of ‘planned’ pregnancies in the last year.Conclusions: It is possible to recruit large numbers of respondents online, relatively quickly, to complete a reproductive health survey. This will be valuable to track reproductive health and well-being at a national level over time. More work is needed to understand reasons for non-response among under-represented groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Heather M. Marlow ◽  
Michael Kunnuji ◽  
Adenike Esiet ◽  
Funsho Bukoye ◽  
Chimaraoke Izugbara

In humanitarian settings, ~35 million girls and young women of reproductive age (15–24) are in urgent need of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. Young women and girls in humanitarian contexts are particularly vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, gender-based violence, and early and forced marriage. We sought to understand girls' and young women's experiences with unwanted pregnancy, abortion, contraception, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gender-based violence (GBV), and forced marriage in an IDP camp in Northeastern Nigeria. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with girls aged 15–19 (N = 13; 8 single and 5 married) and young women aged 20–24 (N = 12; 3 single and 9 married). All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The participants in our study fled from and witnessed violence to arrive in the IDP camp with little material support. Lack of necessities, especially food, has driven many to sex in exchange for goods or into forced marriages. This, in turn, leads to increased unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Participants had limited knowledge about contraception, and some information about SRH services available in the camp, but overall, knowledge and utilization of SRH services was low.

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