Nonpoint Source Pollution
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fei Xu ◽  
Lanping Zhu ◽  
Jiaying Wang ◽  
Yuqin Xue ◽  
Kunhe Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) from human production and life activities causes severe destruction in river basin environments. In this study, three types of sediment samples (A, NPSP tributary samples; B, non-NPSP mainstream samples; C, NPSP mainstream samples) were collected at the estuary of the NPSP tributary of the Jialing River. High-throughput sequencing of the fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify fungal taxa. The impact of NPSP on the aquatic environment of the Jialing River was revealed by analysing the community structure, community diversity and functions of sediment fungi. The results showed that the dominant phylum of sediment fungi was Rozellomycota, followed by Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota and Zoopagomycota (relative abundance>1%). NPSP caused a significant increase in the relative abundances of Rozellomycota, Saccharomycetes, Microascales, Saccharomycetales, Branch02 and Branch03. In addition, it caused a significant decrease in the relative abundances of Chytridiomycota, Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales, Glomerellales, Xylariales and Chaetothyriales. Moreover, NPSP caused significant changes in the physicochemical properties of Jialing River sediments, such as pH and available nitrogen (AN), which significantly increased the species richness of fungi and caused significant changes in the fungal community β-diversity (P<0.05). pH, total phosphorus (TP) and AN were the main environmental factors affecting fungal communities in Jialing River sediments. The functions of sediment fungi mainly involved three types of nutrient metabolism (symbiotrophic, pathotrophic and saprotrophic) and 75 metabolic circulation pathways. NPSP significantly improved the NONOXIPENT-PWY, PENTOSE-P-PWY, and PWY-6837 metabolic circulation pathway functions (P<0.05) and inhibited the PWY-7118, PWY-5920, and PWY-6609 metabolic circulation pathway functions (P<0.05). Hence, NPSP causes changes in the community structure and functions of sediment fungi in Jialing River and destroys the stability of the Jialing River Basin ecosystem.


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 3235
Author(s):  
Ya Liao ◽  
Jingyi He ◽  
Baolin Su ◽  
Junfeng Dou ◽  
Yunqiang Xu ◽  
...  

A Beijing paddy field, along with in-situ experiments, was used to validate and refine the in-situ observation (IO) method to describe nonpoint source pollution (NPS) in paddy fields. Based on synchronous observed rainfall, water depth, and water quality data at two locations (1# (near inlet) and 2# (near outlet)) with large elevation differences, the evapotranspiration and infiltration loss (ET+F), runoff depth and NPS pollution load were calculated according to IO, and a common method was used to calculate ET+F. Then, the results of the different methods and locations were compared and analyzed. The results showed that 1# observation point was located at a lower position compared with 2# observation point. According to 1# observation point, there were 5 days of dry field in the drying period, which was consistent with the actual drying period, and there was a dry period of 9 days based on 2# observation point. The ET+F estimated by IO fit well with the calculated values. In the experiment, 6 overflows and 1 drainage event were identified from the observed data at locations 1# and 2#. The relative deviation of the NPS pollution of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) was between 0.6% and 2.0%. The water level gauge location had little influence on IO but mostly affected the water depth observations during the field drying period. The mareographs should be installed in low-lying paddy field areas to monitor water depth variation throughout the whole rice-growing season.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 9999
Author(s):  
Minji Park ◽  
Yongchul Cho ◽  
Kyungyong Shin ◽  
Hyungjin Shin ◽  
Sanghun Kim ◽  
...  

Spatiotemporal water quality tendencies before and after total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation in the Hangang basin were analyzed to determine the water quality improvement resulting from the TMDL policy. The periodicities of water quality indicators were also analyzed and water quality characteristics corresponding to different unit watershed units were identified in terms of pollution source. Considering five water quality indicators, including biochemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus, it was observed that water quality indicator concentrations were low in the upstream areas of the Bukhangang and Namhangang watersheds. However, they were high between the downstream areas of the Namhangang watershed and the Imjingang watershed and in the Hangang downstream and Jinwicheon watersheds. Additionally, the concentrations of water quality indicators in most of the unit watersheds where TMDL had been implemented decreased after TMDL implementation. However, increasing tendencies in the concentrations of water quality indicators continued to be observed in some of the watershed units in the upstream areas of the Bukhangang and Namhangang watersheds, possibly because these watersheds are affected by nonpoint source pollution owing to rainfall. Therefore, in the future, it would be necessary to implement policies that take these findings into consideration.


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