Studies related to the comparison of ectoparasites that infect snakehead from different habitats and their relationship to biometric conditions have not been widely studied. Thus, present study aimed to investigate the prevalence, intensity, dominance, and predilection of ectoparasites on snakehead collected from ditches, paddy fields, and swamps and correlate them with biometric conditions. In total of 90 snakehead fish were collected from ditches, paddy fields, and swamps. The observation of ectoparasites was performed on the gills, fins, and skin. The parameters measured in this study were ectoparasite profiles and biometric condition of fish. Specifically, the parameters of the ectoparasite profile included prevalence, intensity, dominance, and predilection. Meanwhile, the parameters of the biometric conditions were the length-weight relationship, the distribution of length and weight classes, and condition factors. Five species of ectoparasites that have been identified as Tetrahymena sp., Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., and Gyrodactylus sp. Tetrahymena sp. infection in snakehead was reported for the first time. The ditch habitat had the highest prevalence and intensity, which were 76.7% and 15.4 ectoparasites/fish, respectively. Tetrahymena sp. and Epistylis sp. were detected in sneakhead from all habitats, Trichodina sp. was detected at ditch and paddy field habitats, whereas, Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. were only found in swamp habitats. The gill was the predilection organ that most vulnerable to ectoparasite infection. Infected Snakehead tend to have lower average weight and length than healthy snakehead. Snakehead with a weight range of 115.2-145.2 g and a length range of 258.5-268.5 mm tend to be more vulnerable to ectoparasite infection compared to other sizes.Keywords:Tetrahymena sp.PrevalenceIntensityPredilectionLength-weight relationship
This paper tries to find out the prospect of pilgrimage tourism at Namo Buddha, Kavre, Nepal. There is found limited academic work on pilgrimage tourism in Nepal; however, no evidence of study could be traced on Namo Buddha that is based on pilgrimage tourism perspective. A pilgrimage is an ancient form of religious travel where people make a journey to the place of their belief for experiencing spirituality. Namo Buddha is one of the sacred Buddhist shrines and important pilgrimage sites for Buddhists as they believe the relics of the previous life of Lord Buddha are kept at Namo Buddha Stūpa. Namo Buddha stūpa is also considered to be one of the holiest stūpas in Nepal including Svayambhu Stūpa (Svayambhu Mahachaitya) and the Bodhnath Stūpa (Khasti Mahachaitya). This stūpa commemorates the Buddha Śakyamuni’s sacrifice of his body to a starving tigress and her cubs in his previous life. Nepali people call this site Namo Buddha, Newars call Namo Buddha as Namura and Tibetans call it as Takmo Lu Jin. The place has a huge potential to attract both Buddhist and Hindu pilgrims including international tourists from all over the world. This place offers other attractions and activities besides pilgrimage-based elements such as sightseeing of heritage town; spectacular Himalayan ranges; paddy field terrains; hilly forests; soft adventures experience; and so on. Religious tourism and pilgrimage tourism are interchangeably used in this study and the paper is based on both the primary and secondary data. Exploratory research has been carried out to examine the religious and economic benefits of pilgrims at this site. It also tried to investigate locals’ perspectives on pilgrimage tourism development. Meanwhile, this paper not only studied prospects of pilgrimage tourism in Namo Buddha but also attempted to find out and highlight how the Covid-19 pandemic has impacted the destination.
AbstractWater management methods regulate water temperature in paddy fields, which affects rice growth and the environment. To understand the effect of irrigation conditions on water temperature in a paddy field, water temperature distribution under 42 different irrigation models including the use of ICT water management, which enables remote and automatic irrigation, was simulated using a physical model of heat balance. The following results were obtained: (1) Irrigation water temperature had a more significant effect on paddy water temperature close to the inlet. As the distance from the inlet increased, the water temperature converged to an equilibrium, which was determined by meteorological conditions and changes in water depth. (2) Increasing the irrigation rate with higher irrigation water amount increased the extent and magnitude of the effects of the irrigation water temperature. (3) When total irrigation water amount was the same, increasing the irrigation rate decreased the time-averaged temperature gradient effect over time across the paddy field. (4) Irrigation during the lowest and highest paddy water temperatures effectively decreased and increased the equilibrium water temperature, respectively. The results indicate that irrigation management can be used to alter and control water temperature in paddy fields, and showed the potential of ICT water management in enhancing the effect of water management in paddy fields. Our results demonstrated that a numerical simulation using a physical model for water temperature distribution is useful for revealing effective water management techniques under various irrigation methods and meteorological conditions.