community diversity
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Author(s):  
Yang Wang ◽  
Jin Chen ◽  
Limin Zhang ◽  
Ling Feng ◽  
Lingbin Yan ◽  
...  

The relationships among species diversity, functional diversity, functional redundancy, and community stability are central to community and ecosystem ecology. This paper examines plant communities at different stages of vegetation restoration in the Guizhou karst plateau to study the relationship among functional diversity, functional redundancy, and stability of plant communities. The most important results include the following. (1) Species diversity (SD), functional redundancy (FR), and stability (STB) gradually increased with restoration, and there were significant differences among the different stages; functional diversity (FD) increased at first and then decreased, and reached the highest level at the tree irrigation stage. (2) Plant height (PLH) and specific leaf area (SLA) were functional traits that affected the diversity and stability of the plant community, and PLH was positively correlated with plant community diversity and stability, while SLA was negatively correlated with plant community diversity and stability. (3) During the community recovery, FD and FR interacted to maintain stability. In the early and late stages of recovery, the effect of functional redundancy on stability was greater than that of functional diversity, but it was the opposite in the middle stages. (4) The tree irrigation stage is the likely point at which the species diversity of plant communities in karst areas reached saturation, and the growth rate of functional redundancy after species diversity saturation was greater than that before saturation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paulina Montero ◽  
Marcelo H. Gutiérrez ◽  
Giovanni Daneri ◽  
Bárbara Jacob

Fjord ecosystems cycle and export significant amounts of carbon and appear to be extremely sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic perturbations. To identify patterns of microbial responses to ongoing natural and human-derived changes in the fjords of Chilean Patagonia, we examined the effect of organic enrichment associated with salmon aquaculture and freshening produced by glacial melting on bacterial production (BP), extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA), and community diversity of free-living bacterioplankton. We assayed the effects of salmon food-derived dissolved organic matter (SF-DOM) and meltwaters through microcosm experiments containing waters from Puyuhuapi Fjord and the proglacial fjords of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, respectively. Rates of BP and EEA were 2 times higher in the presence of SF-DOM than in controls, whereas the addition of autochthonous organic matter derived from diatoms (D-DOM) resulted in rates of BP and EEA similar to those measured in the controls. The addition of SF-DOM also reduced species richness and abundance of a significant fraction of the representative taxa of bacterioplankton of Puyuhuapi Fjord. In the proglacial fjords, bacterioplankton diversity was reduced in areas more heavily influenced by meltwaters and was accompanied by moderate positive changes in BP and EEA. Our findings strongly suggest that SF-DOM is highly reactive, promoting enhanced rates of microbial activity while could be influencing the diversity of bacterioplankton communities in Patagonian fjords with a strong salmon farming activity. These findings challenge the traditional view of phytoplankton production as the primary source of labile DOM that fuels heterotrophic activity in coastal ecosystems impacted by anthropogenic organic enrichment. Given the intensive local production of salmon, we analyze the significance of this emerging source of rich “allochthonous” organic substrates for autotrophic/heterotrophic balance, carbon exportation, and hypoxia in Patagonian fjords. The effect of human DOM enrichment can be enhanced in proglacial fjords, where progressive glacial melting exerts additional selective pressure on bacterioplankton diversity.


Author(s):  
Hannah Levenson ◽  
David R. Tarpy

Pollinators are important both ecologically and economically, with the majority of flowering plants and many of the world’s crop species relying on animal pollination—the majority of which is provided by bees. However, documented pollinator population decline threatens ecosystem functioning and human well-being. As such, conservation methods such as augmented pollinator habitat are becoming popular tools to combat pollinator losses. In our study, we evaluate an initiative to plant pollinator habitat at all North Carolina agricultural research stations to ensure that these efforts result in improved bee communities. From 2016 to 2018, we found significant increases in bee abundance and community diversity. These increases depended on the quality of habitat, with plots with higher cover and more plant diversity supporting larger, more diverse bee communities. Although the habitat positively supported bee communities, we found that overall habitat quality degraded over the course of our study. This points to the need of regular upkeep and maintenance of pollinator habitat in order for it to appropriately support bee communities. Future long-term studies on pollinators will be important as natural fluctuations in bee populations may limit findings and many knowledge gaps on native bees still persist.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
E. Ortega-Jiménez ◽  
F. Sedano ◽  
F. Espinosa

AbstractMollusc communities are getting endangered in the aftermath of urban sprawl because artificial structures do not surrogate natural substrates. In this study, we compared the diversity, community and trophic arrangements of molluscs among different models of artificial substrate and their adjacent natural rock, to detect relationships between some abiotic variables and the mollusc communities. Complexity, chemical composition and age were tested as potential drivers of the community. Diversity, community and trophic structure differed between natural and artificial substrates. Complexity at the scale of cm was detected as the most important factor driving the community structure. In addition, a chemical composition based on silica and/or scarce calcium carbonates seems to be relevant for molluscs, as well as for the secondary substrate where they inhabit. However, age did not seem to be a driving factor. Among the different artificial structures, macroscale complexity was detected as the main factor diverging a drastically poor community at seawall from other artificial structures. In this context, macro and microscale complexity, chemical composition and mineral type are variables to consider in future designs of artificial substrates.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xinhua Zhao ◽  
Qiqi Dong ◽  
Yi Han ◽  
Kezhao Zhang ◽  
Xiaolong Shi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Intercropping, a diversified planting pattern, increases land use efficiency and farmland ecological diversity. We explored the changes in soil physicochemical properties, nutrient uptake and utilization, and microbial community composition in wide-strip intercropping of maize and peanut. Results The results from three treatments, sole maize, sole peanut and intercropping of maize and peanut, showed that intercropped maize had a marginal advantage and that the nutrient content of roots, stems and grains in side-row maize was better than that in the middle row of intercropped maize and sole maize. The yield of intercropped maize was higher than that of sole cropping. The interaction between crops significantly increased soil peroxidase activity, and significantly decreased protease and dehydrogenase activities in intercropped maize and intercropped peanut. The diversity and richness of bacteria and fungi decreased in intercropped maize rhizosphere soil, whereas the richness of fungi increased intercropped peanut. RB41, Candidatus-udaeobacter, Stropharia, Fusarium and Penicillium were positively correlated with soil peroxidase activity, and negatively correlated with soil protease and dehydrogenase activities. In addition, intercropping enriched the functional diversity of the bacterial community and reduced pathogenic fungi. Conclusion Intercropping changed the composition and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities in rhizosphere soil, enriched beneficial microbes, increased the nitrogen content of intercropped maize and provided a scientific basis for promoting intercropping in northeastern China.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rui Li ◽  
Yunhua Liu ◽  
Junhui Cheng ◽  
Nana Xue ◽  
Zongjiu Sun ◽  
...  

AbstractBacteria are essential regulators of soil biogeochemical cycles. While several studies of bacterial elevational patterns have been performed in recent years, the drivers of these patterns remain incompletely understood. To clarify bacterial distribution patterns and diversity across narrow- and broad-scale elevational gradients, we collected soil samples from 22 sites in the grasslands of Mt. Tianshan in China along three elevational transects and the overall elevation transect: (1) 6 sites at elevations of 1047–1587 m, (2) 8 sites at 876–3070 m, and (3) 8 sites at 1602–2110 m. The bacterial community diversity across the overall elevation transects exhibited a hump-like pattern, whereas consistent patterns were not observed in the separate elevational transects. The bacterial community composition at the phylum level differed across the transects and elevation sites. The Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum overall (41.76%) but showed clear variations in the different transects. Furthermore, heatmap analyses revealed that both pH and mean annual temperature (MAT) were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with bacterial community composition as well as the dominant bacterial phyla, classes, and genera. These findings provide an inclusive view of bacterial community structures in relation to the environmental factors of the different elevational patterns.


Author(s):  
Sinchan Banerjee ◽  
Anna Bedics ◽  
Péter Harkai ◽  
Balázs Kriszt ◽  
Nagaraju Alpula ◽  
...  

AbstractTo develop effective bioremediation strategies, it is always important to explore autochthonous microbial community diversity using substrate-specific enrichment. The primary objective of this present study was to reveal the diversity of aerobic xylene-degrading bacteria at a legacy BTEX-contaminated site where xylene is the predominant contaminant, as well as to identify potential indigenous strains that could effectively degrade xylenes, in order to better understand the underlying facts about xylene degradation using a multi-omics approach. Henceforward, parallel aerobic microcosms were set up using different xylene isomers as the sole carbon source to investigate evolved bacterial communities using both culture-dependent and independent methods. Research outcome showed that the autochthonous community of this legacy BTEX-contaminated site has the capability to remove all of the xylene isomers from the environment aerobically employing different bacterial groups for different xylene isomers. Interestingly, polyphasic analysis of the enrichments disclose that the community composition of the o-xylene-degrading enrichment community was utterly distinct from that of the m- and p-xylene-degrading enrichments. Although in each of the enrichments Pseudomonas and Acidovorax were the dominant genera, in the case of o-xylene-degrading enrichment Rhodococcus was the main player. Among the isolates, two Hydogenophaga strains, belonging to the same genomic species, were obtained from p-xylene-degrading enrichment, substantially able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons including xylene isomers aerobically. Comparative whole-genome analysis of the strains revealed different genomic adaptations to aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, providing an explanation on their different xylene isomer-degrading abilities.


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