motor neuron diseases
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 292-294
Aarti Chopra ◽  
Ravi Kumar ◽  
Girendra Kumar Gautam

Motor neuron diseases are a group of chronic sporadic and hereditary neurological disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. These might affect the upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons, or both. The prognosis of the motor neuron disease depends upon the age at onset and the area of the central nervous system affected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been documented to be fatal within three years of onset. This activity focuses on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as the prototype of MND, which affects both the upper and the lower motor neurons and discusses the role of inter-professional team in the differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and prognostication. It also discusses various other phenotypes of MND with an emphasis on their distinguishing features in requisite detail.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leonard Ngarka ◽  
Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo ◽  
Esraa Aly ◽  
Willias Masocha ◽  
Alfred K. Njamnshi

Neurological disorders related to neuroinfections are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a major cause of disability and economic burden for patients and society. These include epilepsy, dementia, motor neuron diseases, headache disorders, sleep disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. The highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in SSA. Consequently, there is a high prevalence of neurological disorders associated with HIV infection such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, motor disorders, chronic headaches, and peripheral neuropathy in the region. The pathogenesis of these neurological disorders involves the direct role of the virus, some antiretroviral treatments, and the dysregulated immune system. Furthermore, the high prevalence of epilepsy in SSA (mainly due to perinatal causes) is exacerbated by infections such as toxoplasmosis, neurocysticercosis, onchocerciasis, malaria, bacterial meningitis, tuberculosis, and the immune reactions they elicit. Sleep disorders are another common problem in the region and have been associated with infectious diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis and HIV and involve the activation of the immune system. While most headache disorders are due to benign primary headaches, some secondary headaches are caused by infections (meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess). HIV and neurosyphilis, both common in SSA, can trigger long-standing immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS) potentially resulting in dementia. Despite the progress achieved in preventing diseases from the poliovirus and retroviruses, these microbes may cause motor neuron diseases in SSA. The immune mechanisms involved in these neurological disorders include increased cytokine levels, immune cells infiltration into the CNS, and autoantibodies. This review focuses on the major neurological disorders relevant to Africa and neuroinfections highly prevalent in SSA, describes the interplay between neuroinfections, immune system, neuroinflammation, and neurological disorders, and how understanding this can be exploited for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for improved patient care.

2022 ◽  
Emel Oguz‐Akarsu ◽  
Nermin Gorkem Sirin ◽  
Tugrul Artug ◽  
Bahar Erbas ◽  
Elif Kocasoy Orhan ◽  

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Marcello Miceli ◽  
Cécile Exertier ◽  
Marco Cavaglià ◽  
Elena Gugole ◽  
Marta Boccardo ◽  

Infantile-onset Ascending Hereditary Spastic Paralysis, Juvenile Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are all motor neuron diseases related to mutations on the ALS2 gene, encoding for a 1657 amino acids protein named Alsin. This ~185 kDa multi-domain protein is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues, mostly in the brain and the spinal cord. Several investigations have indicated how mutations within Alsin’s structured domains may be responsible for the alteration of Alsin’s native oligomerization state or Alsin’s propensity to interact with protein partners. In this review paper, we propose a description of differences and similarities characterizing the above-mentioned ALS2-related rare neurodegenerative disorders, pointing attention to the effects of ALS2 mutation from molecule to organ and at the system level. Known cases were collected through a literature review and rationalized to deeply elucidate the neurodegenerative clinical outcomes as consequences of ALS2 mutations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 109 ◽  
pp. 78-87
Marlene Tahedl ◽  
Stacey Li Hi Shing ◽  
Eoin Finegan ◽  
Rangariroyashe H. Chipika ◽  
Jasmin Lope ◽  

There are many people in this world who don’t have the ability to communicate with others due to some unforeseen accident. User’s who are paralyzed and/or suffering from different Motor Neuron Diseases (MND) like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Primary Lateral Sclerosis etc, by making them more independent. Patients suffering from these diseases are not able to move their arms and legs, lose their body balance and the ability to speak. Here we propose an IoT based communication controller using the concept of Morse Code Technology which controls the smartphone of the user. This paper proposes a solution to give the user ability to communicate to other people using machine as an intermediator. The device will require minimal inputs from the user.

2022 ◽  
pp. 248-260
Laura Rosow ◽  
Catherine Lomen-Hoerth

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (24) ◽  
pp. 8261
Mícheál Ó Breasail ◽  
Bijetri Biswas ◽  
Matthew D. Smith ◽  
Md Khadimul A. Mazhar ◽  
Emma Tenison ◽  

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) constitute an increasing global burden and can significantly impair an individual’s mobility, physical activity (PA), and independence. Remote monitoring has been difficult without relying on diaries/questionnaires which are more challenging for people with dementia to complete. Wearable global positioning system (GPS) sensors and accelerometers present a cost-effective and noninvasive way to passively monitor mobility and PA. In addition, changes in sensor-derived outcomes (such as walking behaviour, sedentary, and active activity) may serve as potential biomarkers of disease onset, progression, and response to treatment. We performed a systematic search across four databases to identify papers published within the past 5 years, in which wearable GPS or accelerometers were used to monitor mobility or PA in patients with common NDDs (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, motor neuron diseases/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular parkinsonism, and vascular dementia). Disease and technology-specific vocabulary were searched singly, and then in combination, identifying 4985 papers. Following deduplication, we screened 3115 papers and retained 28 studies following a full text review. One study used wearable GPS and accelerometers, while 27 studies used solely accelerometers in NDDs. GPS-derived measures had been validated against current gold standard measures in one Parkinson’s cohort, suggesting that the technology may be applicable to other NDDs. In contrast, accelerometers are widely utilised in NDDs and have been operationalised in well-designed clinical trials.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document