system level
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Afiya Ayman ◽  
Amutheezan Sivagnanam ◽  
Michael Wilbur ◽  
Philip Pugliese ◽  
Abhishek Dubey ◽  

Due to the high upfront cost of electric vehicles, many public transit agencies can afford only mixed fleets of internal combustion and electric vehicles. Optimizing the operation of such mixed fleets is challenging because it requires accurate trip-level predictions of electricity and fuel use as well as efficient algorithms for assigning vehicles to transit routes. We present a novel framework for the data-driven prediction of trip-level energy use for mixed-vehicle transit fleets and for the optimization of vehicle assignments, which we evaluate using data collected from the bus fleet of CARTA, the public transit agency of Chattanooga, TN. We first introduce a data collection, storage, and processing framework for system-level and high-frequency vehicle-level transit data, including domain-specific data cleansing methods. We train and evaluate machine learning models for energy prediction, demonstrating that deep neural networks attain the highest accuracy. Based on these predictions, we formulate the problem of minimizing energy use through assigning vehicles to fixed-route transit trips. We propose an optimal integer program as well as efficient heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms, demonstrating the scalability and performance of these algorithms numerically using the transit network of CARTA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Masoud Mansoury ◽  
Himan Abdollahpouri ◽  
Mykola Pechenizkiy ◽  
Bamshad Mobasher ◽  
Robin Burke

Fairness is a critical system-level objective in recommender systems that has been the subject of extensive recent research. A specific form of fairness is supplier exposure fairness, where the objective is to ensure equitable coverage of items across all suppliers in recommendations provided to users. This is especially important in multistakeholder recommendation scenarios where it may be important to optimize utilities not just for the end user but also for other stakeholders such as item sellers or producers who desire a fair representation of their items. This type of supplier fairness is sometimes accomplished by attempting to increase aggregate diversity to mitigate popularity bias and to improve the coverage of long-tail items in recommendations. In this article, we introduce FairMatch, a general graph-based algorithm that works as a post-processing approach after recommendation generation to improve exposure fairness for items and suppliers. The algorithm iteratively adds high-quality items that have low visibility or items from suppliers with low exposure to the users’ final recommendation lists. A comprehensive set of experiments on two datasets and comparison with state-of-the-art baselines show that FairMatch, although it significantly improves exposure fairness and aggregate diversity, maintains an acceptable level of relevance of the recommendations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 108771
Zhichao Wang ◽  
Hong Xia ◽  
Jiyu Zhang ◽  
M. Annor-Nyarko ◽  
Shaomin Zhu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-52
Man Zhang ◽  
Andrea Arcuri

REST web services are widely popular in industry, and search techniques have been successfully used to automatically generate system-level test cases for those systems. In this article, we propose a novel mutation operator which is designed specifically for test generation at system-level, with a particular focus on REST APIs. In REST API testing, and often in system testing in general, an individual can have a long and complex chromosome. Furthermore, there are two specific issues: (1) fitness evaluation in system testing is highly costly compared with the number of objectives (e.g., testing targets) to optimize for; and (2) a large part of the genotype might have no impact on the phenotype of the individuals (e.g., input data that has no impact on the execution flow in the tested program). Due to these issues, it might be not suitable to apply a typical low mutation rate like 1/ n (where n is the number of genes in an individual), which would lead to mutating only one gene on average. Therefore, in this article, we propose an adaptive weight-based hypermutation, which is aware of the different characteristics of the mutated genes. We developed adaptive strategies that enable the selection and mutation of genes adaptively based on their fitness impact and mutation history throughout the search. To assess our novel proposed mutation operator, we implemented it in the EvoMaster tool, integrated in the MIO algorithm, and further conducted an empirical study with three artificial REST APIs and four real-world REST APIs. Results show that our novel mutation operator demonstrates noticeable improvements over the default MIO. It provides a significant improvement in performance for six out of the seven case studies, where the relative improvement is up to +12.09% for target coverage, +12.69% for line coverage, and +32.51% for branch coverage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Kazi Asifuzzaman ◽  
Rommel Sánchez Verdejo ◽  
Petar Radojković

It is questionable whether DRAM will continue to scale and will meet the needs of next-generation systems. Therefore, significant effort is invested in research and development of novel memory technologies. One of the candidates for next-generation memory is Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM). STT-MRAM is an emerging non-volatile memory with a lot of potential that could be exploited for various requirements of different computing systems. Being a novel technology, STT-MRAM devices are already approaching DRAM in terms of capacity, frequency, and device size. Although STT-MRAM technology got significant attention of various major memory manufacturers, academic research of STT-MRAM main memory remains marginal. This is mainly due to the unavailability of publicly available detailed timing and current parameters of this novel technology, which are required to perform a reliable main memory simulation on performance and power estimation. This study demonstrates an approach to perform a cycle accurate simulation of STT-MRAM main memory, being the first to release detailed timing and current parameters of this technology from academia—essentially enabling researchers to conduct reliable system-level simulation of STT-MRAM using widely accepted existing simulation infrastructure. The results show a fairly narrow overall performance deviation in response to significant variations in key timing parameters, and the power consumption experiments identify the key power component that is mostly affected with STT-MRAM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Andrea Arcuri ◽  
Juan P. Galeotti

Search-based software testing (SBST) has been shown to be an effective technique to generate test cases automatically. Its effectiveness strongly depends on the guidance of the fitness function. Unfortunately, a common issue in SBST is the so-called flag problem , where the fitness landscape presents a plateau that provides no guidance to the search. In this article, we provide a series of novel testability transformations aimed at providing guidance in the context of commonly used API calls (e.g., strings that need to be converted into valid date/time objects). We also provide specific transformations aimed at helping the testing of REST Web Services. We implemented our novel techniques as an extension to EvoMaster , an SBST tool that generates system-level test cases. Experiments on nine open-source REST web services, as well as an industrial web service, show that our novel techniques improve performance significantly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Julien A. M. Vos ◽  
Robin de Best ◽  
Laura A. M. Duineveld ◽  
Henk C. P. M. van Weert ◽  
Kristel M. van Asselt

Abstract Background With more patients in need of oncological care, there is a growing interest to transfer survivorship care from specialist to general practitioner (GP). The ongoing I CARE study was initiated in 2015 in the Netherlands to compare (usual) surgeon- to GP-led survivorship care, with or without access to a supporting eHealth application (Oncokompas). Methods Semi-structured interviews were held at two separate points in time (i.e. after 1- and 5-years of care) to explore GPs’ experiences with delivering this survivorship care intervention, and study its implementation into daily practice. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 17 GPs. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a conceptual framework. Results Overall, delivering survivorship care was not deemed difficult and dealing with cancer repercussions was already considered part of a GPs’ work. Though GPs readily identified advantages for patients, caregivers and society, differences were seen in GPs’ commitment to the intervention and whether it felt right for them to be involved. Patients’ initiative with respect to planning, absence of symptoms and regular check-ups due to other chronic care were considered to facilitate the delivery of care. Prominent barriers included GPs’ lack of experience and routine, but also lack of clarity regarding roles and responsibilities for organising care. Need for a monitoring system was often mentioned to reduce the risk of non-compliance. GPs were reticent about a possible future transfer of survivorship care towards primary care due to increases in workload and financial constraints. GPs were not aware of their patients’ use of eHealth. Conclusions GPs’ opinions and beliefs about a possible future role in colon cancer survivorship care vary. Though GPs recognize potential benefit, there is no consensus about transferring survivorship care to primary care on a permanent basis. Barriers and facilitators to implementation highlight the importance of both personal and system level factors. Conditions are put forth relating to time, reorganisation of infrastructure, extra personnel and financial compensation. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register; NTR4860. Registered on the 2nd of October 2014.

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