motor neuron
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 292-294
Aarti Chopra ◽  
Ravi Kumar ◽  
Girendra Kumar Gautam

Motor neuron diseases are a group of chronic sporadic and hereditary neurological disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. These might affect the upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons, or both. The prognosis of the motor neuron disease depends upon the age at onset and the area of the central nervous system affected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been documented to be fatal within three years of onset. This activity focuses on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as the prototype of MND, which affects both the upper and the lower motor neurons and discusses the role of inter-professional team in the differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and prognostication. It also discusses various other phenotypes of MND with an emphasis on their distinguishing features in requisite detail.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leonard Ngarka ◽  
Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo ◽  
Esraa Aly ◽  
Willias Masocha ◽  
Alfred K. Njamnshi

Neurological disorders related to neuroinfections are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a major cause of disability and economic burden for patients and society. These include epilepsy, dementia, motor neuron diseases, headache disorders, sleep disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. The highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in SSA. Consequently, there is a high prevalence of neurological disorders associated with HIV infection such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, motor disorders, chronic headaches, and peripheral neuropathy in the region. The pathogenesis of these neurological disorders involves the direct role of the virus, some antiretroviral treatments, and the dysregulated immune system. Furthermore, the high prevalence of epilepsy in SSA (mainly due to perinatal causes) is exacerbated by infections such as toxoplasmosis, neurocysticercosis, onchocerciasis, malaria, bacterial meningitis, tuberculosis, and the immune reactions they elicit. Sleep disorders are another common problem in the region and have been associated with infectious diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis and HIV and involve the activation of the immune system. While most headache disorders are due to benign primary headaches, some secondary headaches are caused by infections (meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess). HIV and neurosyphilis, both common in SSA, can trigger long-standing immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS) potentially resulting in dementia. Despite the progress achieved in preventing diseases from the poliovirus and retroviruses, these microbes may cause motor neuron diseases in SSA. The immune mechanisms involved in these neurological disorders include increased cytokine levels, immune cells infiltration into the CNS, and autoantibodies. This review focuses on the major neurological disorders relevant to Africa and neuroinfections highly prevalent in SSA, describes the interplay between neuroinfections, immune system, neuroinflammation, and neurological disorders, and how understanding this can be exploited for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for improved patient care.

Divya Lodha ◽  
Jamuna R. Subramaniam

Abstract Objectives The main aim of this study is to identify the deleterious effects of indiscriminately consumed high fructose on motor neurons that are critically affected in many neurological conditions causing movement disorders including paralysis. Materials and Methods Neuroblastoma x mouse spinal cord motor neuron cell line (NSC-34) motor neuron cell lines were treated with high fructose and oxygen supplementation (18.8%) and assayed for cell proliferation/death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and oxidative stress response induction Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation, significance with and without high fructose (F)-5%, were estimated by t-tests using GraphPad Prism ver. 8.2.1 Results F-5% along with O2 (18.8%) annihilates the cells (∼85%) by day10 and inhibits cell division as observed by the presence of multinucleated cells. Unexpectedly, 1 to 2% of cells that survived, differentiated and displayed progressive neurite extension. Though not healthy, they were viable up to 80 days. F-5% increased ROS levels (∼34%) not accompanied by concomitant enhanced expression of oxidative stress response regulator, the transcription factor, nrf-2, or downstream effector, sod-1. Conclusion High fructose is extremely harmful to NSC-34 motor neuron cell line.

2022 ◽  
Vol 386 (2) ◽  
pp. 173-180
Aleksandar Videnovic ◽  
Suma Babu ◽  
Brian Zhao ◽  
Haatem M. Reda ◽  
Jenny J. Linnoila

2022 ◽  
Albano Pinto ◽  
Catarina Cunha ◽  
Raquel Chaves ◽  
Matthew ER Butchbach ◽  
Filomena Adega

Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are interspersed repetitive DNA sequences with the ability to mobilize in the genome. The recent development of improved tools for evaluating TE-derived sequences in genomic studies has enabled an increasing attention to the contribution of TEs to human development and disease. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease that is caused by deletions or mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2 gene is a nearly perfect duplication of SMN1. Both genes (collectively known as SMN1/SMN2) are highly enriched in TEs. A comprehensive analysis of TEs insertions in the SMN1/2 loci of SMA carriers, patients and healthy/control individuals was completed to perceive TE dynamics in SMN1/2 and try to establish a link between these elements and SMA.We found an Alu insertion in the promoter region and one L1 element in the 3’UTR that likely play an important role as an alternative promoter and as an alternative terminator to the gene, respectively. Additionally, the several Alu repeats inserted in the genes’ introns influence splicing, giving rise to alternative splicing events that cause RNA circularization and the birth of new alternative exons. These Alu repeats present throughout the genes are also prone to recombination events that can lead to SMN1 exons deletions, that ultimately lead to SMA. The many good and bad implications associated with the presence of TEs inside SMN1/2 make this genomic region ideal for understanding the implications of TEs on genomic evolution as well as on human genomic disease.

2022 ◽  
Emel Oguz‐Akarsu ◽  
Nermin Gorkem Sirin ◽  
Tugrul Artug ◽  
Bahar Erbas ◽  
Elif Kocasoy Orhan ◽  

2022 ◽  
David Reyes‐Leiva ◽  
Iban Aldecoa ◽  
Ellen Gelpi ◽  
Ricard Rojas‐García

Rohit Joshi ◽  
Rashmi Sipani ◽  
Asif Bakshi

Hox genes have been known for specifying the anterior-posterior axis (AP) in bilaterian body plans. Studies in vertebrates have shown their importance in developing region-specific neural circuitry and diversifying motor neuron pools. In Drosophila, they are instrumental for segment-specific neurogenesis and myogenesis early in development. Their robust expression in differentiated neurons implied their role in assembling region-specific neuromuscular networks. In the last decade, studies in Drosophila have unequivocally established that Hox genes go beyond their conventional functions of generating cellular diversity along the AP axis of the developing central nervous system. These roles range from establishing and maintaining the neuromuscular networks to controlling their function by regulating the motor neuron morphology and neurophysiology, thereby directly impacting the behavior. Here we summarize the limited knowledge on the role of Drosophila Hox genes in the assembly of region-specific neuromuscular networks and their effect on associated behavior.

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