northern highlands
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2022 ◽  
Babar Zahoor ◽  
Xuehua Liu ◽  
Melissa Songer

Abstract Global temperatures are predicted to rise from between 1.4 to 5.8°C by 21st century, which could result in a 20 to 30% extinction of species. The negative impacts of climate change on the northern highlands of Pakistan (NHP) could change the species composition. Range shifts and range reduction in the forested landscapes will dramatically affect the distribution of forest dwelling species, including the Galliformes (ground birds). Three Galliformes (e.g., Lophophorus impejanus, Pucrasia macrolopha and Tragopan melanocephalus) are indicator species of the environment and currently distributed in NHP. For this study, we used Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to simulate the current and future (in 2050 and 2070) distributions of the species using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two climate change scenarios, i.e., RCP4.5 (moderate carbon emission scenario) and RCP8.5 (peak carbon emission scenario). Our results indicated that (i) all the three species would be negatively affected by the climate change in 2050 and in 2070. (ii) Under all three climate scenarios, species distribution was predicted to both reduce and shift towards higher altitudes. (iii) Across the provinces in the NHP, the species were predicted to lose over one quarter in 2050 and one-third by 2070 of the current suitable habitat. (iv) The maximum area of climate refugia was projected between the altitudinal range of 2000 m to 4000 m and predicted to shift towards higher altitudes primarily >3000 m in the future. The proposed implications such as establishment and upgradation of the protected areas, ban on hunting, timber mafia and temporary settlements of the local people in the forested landscapes should be under special consideration to mitigate the impact of climate change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 174-195
Thomas Brochard

This two-part article presents a holistic approach and a comprehensive background to intellectual and practical education in the northern Highlands before the SSPCK. It underlines the way in which intellectual and technical education was experienced, consumed, but also encouraged in one culturally heterodox part of Scotland, essentially the northern Highlands, with its population of Gaels and non-Gaels, from around the Reformation until the mid-seventeenth century. The first part will investigate education through the institutional system of schools and universities as well as education abroad and the patronage of education. It demonstrates that a number of northern Highlanders fully embraced the educational opportunities presented to them by the Crown and by local agencies. As a result, State formation and the integration of the region gradually unfolded through soft power and the shaping of minds. Northern Highlanders, mainly but not solely the clan elite, exploited the educational developments of the time and fully participated in and supported the broader dynamic of education and culture but at times balked at funding it. The education in the northern Highlands presented in this article thus appears much more in flux and less antagonistic between the area and the educational structure developed by the Crown.

Significance Most countries, and the UN Security Council, reserve international recognition for Hadi’s government-in-exile in Riyadh. The rival Huthi-led National Salvation Government (NSG) in the capital, Sana’a, has been in office for four years. Its territorial control is limited to the northern highlands, containing around 80% of Yemen’s population. Impacts New surges in COVID-19 transmission and cases in both north and south will likely further undermine humanitarian outcomes. The incoming US Biden administration could boost international mediation efforts -- but Yemen will be a low initial priority. Skirmishing between the northern and southern authorities could escalate again, especially in Marib and Hodeida, but to little effect.

Eshetu Fentaw ◽  
Kifle Dagne ◽  
Tigist Wondimu ◽  
Sebsebe Demissew ◽  
Charlotte S. Bjorå ◽  

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