bread wheat
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qasim Raza ◽  
Awais Riaz ◽  
Rana Muhammad Atif ◽  
Babar Hussain ◽  
Iqrar Ahmad Rana ◽  

MADS-box gene family members play multifarious roles in regulating the growth and development of crop plants and hold enormous promise for bolstering grain yield potential under changing global environments. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a key stable food crop around the globe. Until now, the available information concerning MADS-box genes in the wheat genome has been insufficient. Here, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis identified 300 high confidence MADS-box genes from the publicly available reference genome of wheat. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes classified the wheat genes into 16 distinct subfamilies. Gene duplications were mainly identified in subfamilies containing unbalanced homeologs, pointing towards a potential mechanism for gene family expansion. Moreover, a more rapid evolution was inferred for M-type genes, as compared with MIKC-type genes, indicating their significance in understanding the evolutionary history of the wheat genome. We speculate that subfamily-specific distal telomeric duplications in unbalanced homeologs facilitate the rapid adaptation of wheat to changing environments. Furthermore, our in-silico expression data strongly proposed MADS-box genes as active guardians of plants against pathogen insurgency and harsh environmental conditions. In conclusion, we provide an entire complement of MADS-box genes identified in the wheat genome that could accelerate functional genomics efforts and possibly facilitate bridging gaps between genotype-to-phenotype relationships through fine-tuning of agronomically important traits.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 187
Fernando Martínez-Moreno ◽  
Patricia Giraldo ◽  
Cristina Nieto ◽  
Magdalena Ruiz

A collection of 84 bread wheat Spanish landraces were inoculated with three isolates of leaf rust and one of yellow rust at the seedling stage in controlled conditions. The latency period of leaf rust on the susceptible landraces was also assessed. An extended collection of 149 landraces was planted in three locations in field trials to evaluate the naturally occurring leaf and yellow rust severity. Several landraces (36) were resistant to one leaf rust isolate at the seedling stage, but only one was resistant to all three isolates. Landraces resistant to PG14 leaf rust isolate originated from areas with higher precipitation and more uniform temperatures. Many resistant landraces were from the north-west zone of Spain, a region with high precipitation and uniform temperatures. Results from the field trials also confirmed this trend. Landraces from the north-west also possessed a longer latency period of leaf rust, an important component of partial resistance. Regarding yellow rust, 16 landraces showed a lower disease severity in the seedling tests. Again, the resistant landraces mostly originated from areas with higher precipitation (especially in winter) and more uniform temperature.

2022 ◽  
Tianxiang Liu ◽  
Yulin Sun ◽  
Chao Ma ◽  
Wenhui Jiang ◽  
Hongqi Wu ◽  

Abstract Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important source of nutrients for humans. Therefore, improvement of its yields is essential to feed the increasing world population. The tri-pistil (TRP) trait in wheat has a high potential for increasing yields. We obtained a pure tri-pistil wheat line, 4045, and evaluated its morphological properties. The 4045 wheat line stably produced three independently inherited pistils, which led to 1-3 grains in each floret. Among the three pistils, two lately emerged pistils initiated at late anther primordia stage to early tetrads stage. Genetic analysis revealed that there were TRP penetrance variations among the 11 F1 populations of 4045. Fine mapping narrowed the single dominant TRP locus to a 97.3 kb region, containing two candidate genes, on the 2DL chromosome. However, further gene sequence, functional as well as comparative genomic analyses ruled out the only two candidate genes. Therefore, TRP is high-likely a unique gain-of-function mutation that does not exist in normal wheat genome. Transcriptome analysis of floral homeotic genes revealed that expressions of the C-class TaAG-2s, which are essential for carpel specification, significantly increased in 4045, implying that TaAG-2s have played important roles in TRP-regulated tri-pistil formation. This study highlights that TRP leads to a precisely regulated pistil number increase (PRPNI) mutations and proposed a regulatory model of PRPNI pistil architecture. PRPNI offers a novel abnormal pistil development resource for research of floral architectures and potential on crop yield improvement.

Mian Abdur Rehman Arif ◽  
Monika Agacka-Mołdoch ◽  
Calvin O. Qualset ◽  
Andreas Börner

AbstractPlant genetic resources are stored and regenerated in > 1750 gene banks storing > 7,000,000 accessions. Since seeds are the primary storage units, research on seed longevity is of particular importance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of 15 traits related to seed longevity and dormancy using 7584 high-quality SNPs recorded across 2 years and originated from five production years revealed a total of 46 additive QTLs. Exploration of the QTLs with epistatic effect resulted in the detection of 29 pairs of epistatic QTLs. To our information, this is only the second report of epistatic QTLs for seed longevity in bread wheat. We conclude that in addition to dense genetic maps, the epistatic interaction between loci should be considered to capture more variation which remained unnoticed in additive mapping.

Gaëtan Touzy ◽  
Stéphane Lafarge ◽  
Elise Redondo ◽  
Vincent Lievin ◽  
Xavier Decoopman ◽  

Abstract Key message The response of a large panel of European elite wheat varieties to post-anthesis heat stress is influenced by 17 QTL linked to grain weight or the stay-green phenotype. Abstract Heat stress is a critical abiotic stress for winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) especially at the flowering and grain filling stages, limiting its growth and productivity in Europe and elsewhere. The breeding of new high-yield and stress-tolerant wheat varieties requires improved understanding of the physiological and genetic bases of heat tolerance. To identify genomic areas associated with plant and grain characteristics under heat stress, a panel of elite European wheat varieties (N = 199) was evaluated under controlled conditions in 2016 and 2017. A split-plot design was used to test the effects of high temperature for ten days after flowering. Flowering time, leaf chlorophyll content, the number of productive spikes, grain number, grain weight and grain size were measured, and the senescence process was modeled. Using genotyping data from a 280 K SNP chip, a genome-wide association study was carried out to test the main effect of each SNP and the effect of SNP × treatment interaction. Genotype × treatment interactions were mainly observed for grain traits measured on the main shoots and tillers. We identified 10 QTLs associated with the main effect of at least one trait and seven QTLs associated with the response to post-anthesis heat stress. Of these, two main QTLs associated with the heat tolerance of thousand-kernel weight were identified on chromosomes 4B and 6B. These QTLs will be useful for breeders to improve grain yield in environments where terminal heat stress is likely to occur.

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