Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop as being consumed as staple food in the world as well as in Ethiopia. The production of wheat in Ethiopia decreased due to the incidence of insect pests. Out of insects’ pests the Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is the recent one that causes yield loss either directly or indirectly. Methods: The experiment was carried out at selected districts of West Showa zone, Ethiopia during off cropping season 2019 to evaluate the yield reduction in wheat crop due to the invasion of Russian wheat aphids. Malamar, Dimethoate, neem seeds, leaves, Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were used in form of spray. Result: However, Malamar and Dimethoate highly significantly lowered the population of Diuraphis noxia. The combination of Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopleae significantly lowered the population of Russian wheat aphid. The combination of Neem leaf and Neem seeds, as well as Beaveria bassiana, proved to be effective against Russian wheat aphid yet they were protected and sound against the environments. Malamar showed the maximum decrease in Diuraphis noxia populations followed by Dimethoate, the combination of Beaveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopleae.
Given the substantial variation in global wheat yield, insufficient research in cultivar selection for climate change, and the lack of suitable germplasm in sustainable agroecosystems, there is a requisite for soft wheat genotypes, with stable grain yield as well as quality parameters. The present study was aimed at genotype evaluation (GGE biplot for “mean performance versus stability”) not only for yield, but also for technological, phytosanitary and functional quality parameters of 24 Triticum aestivum L. genotypes (eight landraces, old and modern varieties, respectively) within a single organic farm location (Argelato, Emilia-Romagna, Italy) over three consecutive years. Overall, high yield stability was shown for the landraces and old varieties. In particular, the landraces Piave and Gamba di Ferro, as well as the old variety Verna, showed high stability with above-average means for numerous quality parameters of interest. Additionally, relative stability combined with above-average mean for quality parameters was also demonstrated for the high-yielding Gentil Bianco and Guà 113. Aside from Verna, these “unrecognized” resilient genotypes were also shown to meet the requisites for suitable germplasm in sustainable agroecosystems. Future potential utilization of these more stable landraces in addressing climate change would also ultimately facilitate the survival of valuable genetic resources.
AbstractThis study estimated the genotype × environment interactions for ten yield associated traits in advanced generation hybrids of several cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. and A. variabilis Eig. using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models. Tests were ran over five years at one location in replicated field trials. The AMMI model showed significant genotypic and environmental effects for all analysed traits. A majority of the hybrid lines were less stable in the analysed traits than their parental wheats. The older wheat cultivars, with lower environmental sensitivity, were the most stable. The best total genotype selection index, for all ten traits combined, was observed for the oldest cvs. Gama and Rusałka, and among the hybrid lines, for Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Smuga and Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Muza. The lines Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Smuga, Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Muza, Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Korweta, Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Begra///Smuga, and Ae. kotschyi/Rusałka//Begra///Turnia are recommended for inclusion in breeding programmes due to their greater stability and the good average values for the observed traits.