suitable habitat
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. A. Khan ◽  
Z. Ullah ◽  
I. Uz Zaman ◽  
M. S. Khan ◽  
S. Mahmood ◽  

Abstract The Rufous treepie (Dendrocitta vagabunda) belongs to family corvidae, order Passeriformes which includes about 100 species. The current study was conducted to gather information about the Population distribution and habitat analysis of D. vagabunda at District Abbottabad, Pakistan. The data were collected on monthly basis both morning and evening times (2018-2019). “The ‘’Point count Method” was used for population estimation and ‘’Quadrates Method” for habitat analysis of study area. The result shows an average month-wise population density of D. vagabunda was maximum at Jhangra 0.14±0.039/ha, whereas minimum at Havelian 0.11±0.022/ha. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) among monthly population densities of D. vagabunda, however, a significant difference (p<0.05) was found between morning and evening times population of the specie. The present study revealed that importance value index (IVI) of plants species at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 59.6±12.6, 50.1±6.9, 53.4±6.3, 66.8±10 and 60.1±7.7. Likewise, the frequency of shrubs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 33.3±4.2, 45±9.4, 46.7±8.2, 55.6±22.2 and 37.5±8.5. Similarly, the frequency of herbs at Sherwan, Bakot, Havelian, Langra and Jhangra were 40.4±6.0, 37.5±5.6, 53.3±7.4, 48.5±5.2 and 46.9±7.4 respectively. Our results show the study area as suitable habitat for D. vagabunda.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ning Shi ◽  
Niyati Naudiyal ◽  
Jinniu Wang ◽  
Narayan Prasad Gaire ◽  
Yan Wu ◽  

Meconopsis punicea is an iconic ornamental and medicinal plant whose natural habitat has degraded under global climate change, posing a serious threat to the future survival of the species. Therefore, it is critical to analyze the influence of climate change on possible distribution of M. punicea for conservation and sustainable utilization of this species. In this study, we used MaxEnt ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution of M. punicea under current and future climate scenarios in the southeastern margin region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Model projections under current climate show that 16.8% of the study area is suitable habitat for Meconopsis. However, future projections indicate a sharp decline in potential habitat for 2050 and 2070 climate change scenarios. Soil type was the most important environmental variable in determining the habitat suitability of M. punicea, with 27.75% contribution to model output. Temperature seasonality (16.41%), precipitation of warmest quarter (14.01%), and precipitation of wettest month (13.02%), precipitation seasonality (9.41%) and annual temperature range (9.24%) also made significant contributions to model output. The mean elevation of suitable habitat for distribution of M. punicea is also likely to shift upward in most future climate change scenarios. This study provides vital information for the protection and sustainable use of medicinal species like M. punicea in the context of global environmental change. Our findings can aid in developing rational, broad-scale adaptation strategies for conservation and management for ecosystem services, in light of future climate changes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Anita Devi ◽  
Syed Ainul Hussain ◽  
Monika Sharma ◽  
Govindan Veeraswami Gopi ◽  
Ruchi Badola

AbstractJarman–Bell (1974) hypothesized that in the dry savanna of Africa, small-bodied herbivores tend to browse more on forage with high protein and low fibre content. This implies browsing on high nutritive forage by meso-herbivores, and grazing and mixed feeding on coarse forage by mega-herbivores. We tested this hypothesis in the riverine alluvial grasslands of the Kaziranga National Park (KNP), where seasonal flood and fire play an important role in shaping the vegetation structure. We analyzed the feeding habits and quality of major forage species consumed by three mega-herbivores, viz. greater one-horned rhino, Asian elephant, and Asiatic wild buffalo, and three meso-herbivores, viz. swamp deer, hog deer, and sambar. We found that both mega and meso-herbivores were grazers and mixed feeders. Overall, 25 forage plants constituted more than 70% of their diet. Among monocots, family Poaceae with Saccharum spp. (contributing > 9% of the diet), and, among dicots, family Rhamnaceae with Ziziphus jujuba (contributing > 4% of the diet) fulfilled the dietary needs. In the dry season, the concentration of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, calcium, sodium, and phosphorous varied significantly between monocots and dicots, whereas only calcium and sodium concentrations varied significantly in the wet season. Dicots were found to be more nutritious throughout the year. Compared to the dry season, the monocots, viz. Alpinia nigra, Carex vesicaria, Cynodon dactylon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Hemarthria compressa, Imperata cylindrica, and Saccharum spp., with their significantly high crude protein, were more nutritious during the wet season. Possibly due to the availability of higher quality monocots in the wet season, both mega and meso-herbivores consume it in high proportion. We concluded that the Jarman–Bell principle does not apply to riverine alluvial grasslands as body size did not explain the interspecific dietary patterns of the mega and meso-herbivores. This can be attributed to seasonal floods, habitat and forage availability, predation risk, and management practices such as controlled burning of the grasslands. The ongoing succession and invasion processes, anthropogenic pressures, and lack of grassland conservation policy are expected to affect the availability of the principal forage and suitable habitat of large herbivores in the Brahmaputra floodplains, which necessitates wet grassland-based management interventions for the continued co-existence of large herbivores in such habitats.

S.J. Kell ◽  
N. Rollinson ◽  
R.J. Brooks ◽  
Jacqueline Litzgus

Many oviparous reptiles nest in aggregations and with temporal synchrony. We hypothesized that these traits reflect attraction by conspecifics rather than limiting suitable habitat. We quantified whether Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta (Schneider, 1783)) in Algonquin Park, Ontario, were nesting communally, identified cues females used to select nest sites, and tested whether hatching success was higher in spatially-clustered nests. We found that nests were closer to one another than expected by chance (i.e., were clustered), but that individual nest site selection was only weakly influenced by micro-habitat characteristics. Survival of clustered nests (49%) was not significantly higher than that of solitary nests (39%). When turtle models were placed on the nesting embankment, females nested most often with the highest density of models. Given that reproductive lifespan is the major axis of fitness and that there was little benefit to nest survival in clustered nests, we suggest that clustering is related to females cueing to conspecific nests to expedite the nesting process and gain a good-quality nest site (chosen by the first nesting female in the cluster) while investing little energy in nest-site selection. This strategy may reduce time spent on land, thereby minimizing chances of dehydration, temperature stress, and adult depredation.

2022 ◽  
Babar Zahoor ◽  
Xuehua Liu ◽  
Melissa Songer

Abstract Global temperatures are predicted to rise from between 1.4 to 5.8°C by 21st century, which could result in a 20 to 30% extinction of species. The negative impacts of climate change on the northern highlands of Pakistan (NHP) could change the species composition. Range shifts and range reduction in the forested landscapes will dramatically affect the distribution of forest dwelling species, including the Galliformes (ground birds). Three Galliformes (e.g., Lophophorus impejanus, Pucrasia macrolopha and Tragopan melanocephalus) are indicator species of the environment and currently distributed in NHP. For this study, we used Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to simulate the current and future (in 2050 and 2070) distributions of the species using three General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two climate change scenarios, i.e., RCP4.5 (moderate carbon emission scenario) and RCP8.5 (peak carbon emission scenario). Our results indicated that (i) all the three species would be negatively affected by the climate change in 2050 and in 2070. (ii) Under all three climate scenarios, species distribution was predicted to both reduce and shift towards higher altitudes. (iii) Across the provinces in the NHP, the species were predicted to lose over one quarter in 2050 and one-third by 2070 of the current suitable habitat. (iv) The maximum area of climate refugia was projected between the altitudinal range of 2000 m to 4000 m and predicted to shift towards higher altitudes primarily >3000 m in the future. The proposed implications such as establishment and upgradation of the protected areas, ban on hunting, timber mafia and temporary settlements of the local people in the forested landscapes should be under special consideration to mitigate the impact of climate change.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Alice Maria Almeida ◽  
Maria João Martins ◽  
Manuel Lameiras Campagnolo ◽  
Paulo Fernandez ◽  
Teresa Albuquerque ◽  

AbstractClimate change is a challenge for forests in the coming decades, with a major impact on species adaptation and distribution. The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most vulnerable hotspots for biodiversity conservation under climate change in the world. This research aimed at studying a Mediterranean species well adapted to the region: the Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree). The MaxEnt, a presence-only species-distribution software, was used to model A. unedo’s environmental suitability. The current species potential distribution was accessed based on actual occurrences and selected environmental variables and subsequently projected for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Mid-Holocene (MH), and the years 2050 and 2070, considering the two Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results from the LGM projection suggest the presence of refugia in the core of the Mediterranean Basin, in particular the Iberian Peninsula (IP). The projections for the MH indicate increasing climatic suitability for the species and an eastward expansion, relatively to LGM. The predicted future environmental changes will most likely act as a catalyst for suitable habitat loss and a range shift towards the North is likely to occur.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Matti A. Niissalo ◽  
Elliot M. Gardner ◽  
Gillian S. Khew ◽  
Otakar Šída ◽  
Axel Dalberg Poulsen ◽  

Lowiaceae (order Zingiberales) is a small family of forest herbs in Southeast Asia. All species belong to the genus Orchidantha. They are known for possessing orchid-like flowers that are smelly, apparently mimicking dead animals, feces, or mushrooms. Little is known of the biogeographic patterns or character evolution of the family. We sampled the family extensively, including many recently discovered species, and reconstructed the phylogeny of the family using HybSeq with Lowiaceae-specific RNA baits. Our phylogenetic reconstructions confirm that the family is most closely related to Strelitziaceae, and that species with dark, foul-smelling flowers form a grade in which a clade of species with paler flowers are embedded. The pale-flowered species produce a distinct odor, resembling edible mushrooms. Apart from a single species, the species from Borneo form a clade, and the same is true for Indochinese species. The remaining species form a more widespread clade. A biogeographic analysis shows that the distribution of Lowiaceae can explained by vicariance and gradual dispersal from a shared ancestral range of Borneo and Indochina. There is no evidence of long-distance dispersal, only a later extension in distribution to Peninsular Malaysia which coincides with the presence of a land bridge. Different directions of spread are possible, but none require long-distance dispersal. The results are consistent with the geological history of Southeast Asia. In particular, the relatively early isolation between Indochina and Borneo could be explained by the presence of a sea barrier that developed 10–15 MYA, and the continuous movement of plant species between Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia could be explained by a land bridge that existed until c. 5 MYA. The lack of an extensive land bridge with a suitable habitat may explain the absence of this genus from Sumatra and other Indonesian islands aside from Borneo. The strict reliance on a continuous habitat for the range expansion of Lowiaceae can be explained by their fruits and seeds, which lack obvious adaptations for long-distance dispersal. The inability to disperse to new areas may also explain why the extant species have very restricted distributions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 5-13
Wayne M. Edwards

The impact of climate change on Malagasy amphibians remains poorly understood. Equally, deforestation, fragmentation, and lack of connectivity between forest patches may leave vulnerable species isolated in habitat that no longer suits their environmental or biological requirements. We assess the predicted impact of climate change by 2085 on the potential distribution of a Critically Endangered frog species, the golden mantella (Mantella aurantiaca), that is confined to a small area of the central rainforest of Madagascar. We identify potential population distributions and climatically stable areas. Results suggest a potential south-eastwardly shift away from the current range and a decrease in suitable habitat from 2110 km2 under current climate to between 112 km2 – 138 km2 by the year 2085 – less than 7 % of currently available suitable habitat. Results also indicate that the amount of golden mantella habitat falling within protected areas decreases by 86 % over the same period. We recommend research to ascertain future viability and the feasibility of expanding protection to newly identified potential sites. This information can then be used in future conservation actions such as habitat restoration, translocations, re introductions or the siting of further wildlife corridors or protected areas.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260031
Hussain Ali ◽  
Jaffar Ud Din ◽  
Luciano Bosso ◽  
Shoaib Hameed ◽  
Muhammad Kabir ◽  

Climate change is expected to impact a large number of organisms in many ecosystems, including several threatened mammals. A better understanding of climate impacts on species can make conservation efforts more effective. The Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) are economically important wild ungulates in northern Pakistan because they are sought-after hunting trophies. However, both species are threatened due to several human-induced factors, and these factors are expected to aggravate under changing climate in the High Himalayas. In this study, we investigated populations of ibex and blue sheep in the Pamir-Karakoram mountains in order to (i) update and validate their geographical distributions through empirical data; (ii) understand range shifts under climate change scenarios; and (iii) predict future habitats to aid long-term conservation planning. Presence records of target species were collected through camera trapping and sightings in the field. We constructed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model on presence record and six key climatic variables to predict the current and future distributions of ibex and blue sheep. Two representative concentration pathways (4.5 and 8.5) and two-time projections (2050 and 2070) were used for future range predictions. Our results indicated that ca. 37% and 9% of the total study area (Gilgit-Baltistan) was suitable under current climatic conditions for Himalayan ibex and blue sheep, respectively. Annual mean precipitation was a key determinant of suitable habitat for both ungulate species. Under changing climate scenarios, both species will lose a significant part of their habitats, particularly in the Himalayan and Hindu Kush ranges. The Pamir-Karakoram ranges will serve as climate refugia for both species. This area shall remain focus of future conservation efforts to protect Pakistan’s mountain ungulates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 30-37
Khairul Adha ◽  
Melissa Dennis Chong ◽  
Ahmad Syafiq Ahmad Nasir ◽  
Fatimah A'tirah Mohamad ◽  
Farah Akmal Idrus ◽  

The study was conducted in the river system located at Wilmar oil palm plantation in Miri, Sarawak. The objective of the study is to determine the fish species diversity and composition in the streams and rivers in the oil palm plantations. Fish were sampled using a variety of fishing methods, including, scoop nets, cast net, and gill nets of different mesh sizes (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.75 and 4.0 cm) from 2 to 7 of February 2014. A total of 326 individual fish including 32 species of native fishes and one species of non-native fish from 19 genera, seven families and five orders were collected from seven locations. The cyprinid fish represented 62.20% of the total fish caught and was found in all the rivers surveyed. About six endemic species in Borneo such as Barbonymus collingwoodii, Barbodes banksi, Barbodes sealei, Hampala bimaculata Nematabramis borneensis and Nematabramis everetti were identified. However, only one species from families Bagridae, Balitoridae, Clariidae, and Hemiramphidae was sampled from the study sites. The higher fish species composition found in streams and rivers of the oil palm plantation landscapes could be attributed to the conservation of some areas of the plantation as high conservation value forest (HCVF) status, which have provided suitable habitat for fish species within the plantation aquatic environments.

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