dynamic power management
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2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 57-67
Rakhee Kallimani ◽  
Sridhar Iyer

Dynamic power management (DPM) is an efficient technique to design low-power and energy-efficient nodes for wireless sensor networks. This article demonstrates the stochastic behaviour of an input event arrival which is modelled with first-in first-out (FIFO) queue and a single server. An event-driven sensor node is developed based on semi-Markov model. The article investigates the factors affecting the performance of the individual sensor node with detailed analysis considering power consumption and lifetime to be the performance metrics under study. The results demonstrate the impact of the change in event arrival and the probability of change detection on the performance of the node. It is observed that (i) the number of generated events increases with the change in the average value of the distribution which affects the service time in turn resulting in a variation of the server utilization, and that (ii) the increase in the detection probability increases the power consumption decreasing the lifetime of the node.

2021 ◽  
Peter Brand ◽  
Joachim Falk ◽  
Eduard Potwigin ◽  
Jurgen Teich

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (5s) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Mario Günzel ◽  
Christian Hakert ◽  
Kuan-Hsun Chen ◽  
Jian-Jia Chen

Dynamic power management (DPM) reduces the power consumption of a computing system when it idles, by switching the system into a low power state for hibernation. When all processors in the system share the same component, e.g., a shared memory, powering off this component during hibernation is only possible when all processors idle at the same time. For a real-time system, the schedulability property has to be guaranteed on every processor, especially if idle intervals are considered to be actively introduced. In this work, we consider real-time systems with hybrid shared-memory architectures, which consist of shared volatile memory (VM) and non-volatile memory (NVM). Energy-efficient execution is achieved by applying DPM to turn off all memories during the hibernation mode. Towards this, we first explore the hybrid memory architectures and suggest a task model, which features configurable hibernation overheads. We propose a multi-processor procrastination algorithm (HEART), based on partitioned earliest-deadline-first (pEDF) scheduling. Our algorithm facilitates reducing the energy consumption by actively enlarging the hibernation time. It enforces all processors to idle simultaneously without violating the schedulability condition, such that the system can enter the hibernation state, where shared memories are turned off. Throughout extensive evaluation of HEART, we demonstrate (1) the increase in potential hibernation time, respectively the decrease in energy consumption, and (2) that our algorithm is not only more general but also has better performance than the state of the art with respect to energy efficiency in most cases.

N. Sharmila ◽  
K. R. Nataraj ◽  
K. R. Rekha

The power generation using solar photovoltaic (PV) system in microgrid requires energy storage system due to their dilute and intermittent nature. The system requires efficient control techniques to ensure the reliable operation of the microgrid. This work presents dynamic power management using a decentralized approach. The control techniques in microgrid including droop controllers in cascade with proportional-integral (PI) controllers for voltage stability and power balance have few limitations. PI controllers alone will not ensure microgrid’s stability. Their parameters cannot be optimized for varying demand and have a slow transient response which increases the settling time. The droop controllers have lower efficiency. The load power variation and steady-state voltage error make the droop control ineffective. This paper presents a control scheme for dynamic power management by incorporating the combined PI and hysteresis controller (CPIHC) technique. The system becomes robust, performs well under varying demand conditions, and shows a faster dynamic response. The proposed DC microgrid has solar PV as an energy source, a lead-acid battery as the energy storage system, constant and dynamic loads. The simulation results show the proposed CPIHC technique efficiently manages the dynamic power, regulates DC link voltage and battery’s state of charge (SoC) compared to conventional combined PI and droop controller (CPIDC).

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1059
Yang Liu ◽  
Yan Ma ◽  
Yongsheng Yang ◽  
Tingting Zheng

Micro-scale Cyber-Physical Systems (MCPSs) can be automatically and formally estimated by probabilistic model checking, on the level of system model MDPs (Markov Decision Processes) against desired requirements in PCTL (Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic). The counterexamples in probabilistic model checking are witnesses of requirements violation, which can provide the meaningful information for debugging, control, and synthesis of MCPSs. Solving the smallest counterexample for probabilistic model checking MDP has been proven to be an NPC (Non-deterministic Polynomial complete) problem. Although some heuristic methods are designed for this, it is usually difficult to fix the heuristic functions. In this paper, the Genetic algorithm optimized with heuristic, i.e., the heuristic Genetic algorithm, is firstly proposed to generate a counterexample for the probabilistic model checking MDP model of MCPSs. The diagnostic subgraph serves as a compact counterexample, and diagnostic paths of MDP constitute an AND/OR tree for constructing a diagnostic subgraph. Indirect path coding of the Genetic algorithm is used to extend the search range of the state space, and a heuristic crossover operator is used to generate more effective diagnostic paths. A prototype tool based on the probabilistic model checker PAT is developed, and some cases (dynamic power management and some communication protocols) are used to illustrate its feasibility and efficiency.

Satyabrata Sahoo ◽  
S. C. Swain ◽  
Kantipudi V.V.S.R Chowdary ◽  
Sarita Samal ◽  
Arjyadhara Pradhan ◽  

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