mobile ad hoc
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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Medical sensors are implanted within the vital organs of human body to record and monitor the vital signs of pulse rate, heartbeat, electrocardiogram, body mass index, temperature, blood pressure, etc. to ensure their effective functioning. These are monitored to detect patient’s health from anywhere and at any time. The Wireless Sensor Networks are embedded in the form of Body Area Nets and are capable of sensing and storing the information on a digital device. Later this information could be inspected or even sent to a remotely located storage device specifically (server or any public or private cloud for analysis) so that a medical doctor can diagnose the present medical condition of a person or a patient. Such a facility would be of immense help in the event of an emergency such as a sudden disaster or natural calamity where communication is damaged, and the potential sources become inaccessible. The aim of this paper is to create a mobile platform using Mobile Ad hoc Network to support healthcare connectivity and treatment in emergency situations.

Vu Khanh Quy ◽  
Pham Minh Chuan ◽  
Le Anh Ngoc

Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) is a set of mobile devices that can self-configuration, self-established parameters to transmission in-network. Although limited inability, MANETs have been applied in many domains to serve humanity in recent years, such as disaster recovery, forest fire, military, intelligent traffic, or IoT ecosystems. Because of the movement of network devices, the system performance is low. In order to MANETs could more contribution in the future of the Internet, the routing is a significant problem to enhance the performance of MANETs. In this work, we proposed a new delay-based protocol aim enhance the system performance, called performance routing protocol based on delay (PRPD). In order to analyze the efficiency of the proposed solution, we compared the proposed protocol with traditional protocols. Experiment results showed that the PRPD protocol improved packet delivery ratio, throughput, and delay compared to the traditional protocols.

Salman Ali Syed ◽  
Shahzad Ali

Secure data transfer in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) against malicious attacks is of immense importance. In this paper, we propose a new enhanced trust model for securing the MANET using trust-based scheme that uses both blind trust and referential trust. In order to do this, the trust relationship function has to be integrated with the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol for making the protocol more secure. We thoroughly analyze the DSR protocol and generate the performance matrices for the data pertaining to packets sent, packets received, packets loss, and throughput. We also analyze the outcome attained from the improvised trust establishment scheme by using the three algorithm implementations in NS2 simulator for detecting and preventing various types of attacks.

Dr. Sultanuddin SJ ◽  
Dr. Md. Ali Hussain ◽  

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have evolved into a leading multi-hop infrastructure less wireless communication technology where every node performs the function of a router. Ad- hoc networks have been spontaneously and specifically designed for the nodes to communicate with each other in locations where it is either complex or impractical to set up an infrastructure. The overwhelming truth is that with IoT emergence, the number of devices being connected every single second keeps increasing tremendously on account of factors like scalability, cost factor and scalability which are beneficial to several sectors like education, disaster management, healthcare, espionage etc., where the identification and allocation of resources as well as services is a major constraint. Nevertheless, this infrastructure with dynamic mobile nodes makes it more susceptible to diverse attack scenarios especially in critical circumstances like combat zone communications where security is inevitable and vulnerabilities in the MANET could be an ideal choice to breach the security. Therefore, it is crucial to select a robust and reliable system that could filter malicious activities and safeguard the network. Network topology and mobility constraints poses difficulty in identifying malicious nodes that can infuse false routes or packets could be lost due to certain attacks like black hole or worm hole. Hence our objective is to propose a security solution to above mentioned issue through ML based anomaly detection and which detects and isolates the attacks in MANETs. Most of the existing technologies detect the anomalies by utilizing static behavior; this may not prove effective as MANET portrays dynamic behavior. Machine learning in MANETs helps in constructing an analytical model for predicting security threats that could pose enormous challenges in future. Machine learning techniques through its statistical and logical methods offers MANETs the learning potential and encourages towards adaptation to different environments. The major objective of our study is to identify the intricate patterns and construct a secure mobile ad-hoc network by focusing on security aspects by identifying malicious nodes and mitigate attacks. Simulation-oriented results establish that the proposed technique has better PDR and EED in comparison to the other existing techniques.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 571
Eric Chiejina ◽  
Hannan Xiao ◽  
Bruce Christianson ◽  
Alexios Mylonas ◽  
Chidinma Chiejina

The distributed nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents security challenges and vulnerabilities which sometimes lead to several forms of attacks. To improve the security in MANETs, reputation and trust management systems (RTMS) have been developed to mitigate some attacks and threats arising from abnormal behaviours of nodes in networks. Generally, most reputation and trust systems in MANETs focus mainly on penalising uncooperative network nodes. It is a known fact that nodes in MANETs have limited energy resources and as such, the continuous collaboration of cooperative nodes will lead to energy exhaustion. This paper develops and evaluates a robust Dirichlet reputation and trust management system which measures and models the reputation and trust of nodes in the network, and it incorporates candour into the mode of operations of the RTMS without undermining network security. The proposed RTMS employs Dirichlet probability distribution in modelling the individual reputation of nodes and the trust of each node is computed based on the node’s actual network performance and the accuracy of the second-hand reputations it gives about other nodes. The paper also presents a novel candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique that categorises the behaviours of nodes based on their evaluated total reputation and trust values. The evaluation and analyses of some of the simulated behaviours of nodes in the deployed MANETs show that the candour two-dimensional trustworthiness evaluation technique is an effective technique that encourages and caters to nodes that continuously contribute to the network despite the reduction in their energy levels.

2022 ◽  
pp. 121-134
Manwinder Singh ◽  
Navdeep Kaur Jhajj ◽  
Anudeep Goraya

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 244-252
Mrs.L. D. Sujithra Devi ◽  
Mrs. A. Praveena ◽  
Mrs. B. Reena ◽  
Mrs. G. Anandhi ◽  

A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs) connects mobile nodes without any base station. These nodes in the network can change the topology dynamically and transfer the data among themselves. The nodes in the MANET are categorized based on the resource factors like memory, computation, and power levels. The dynamic change in route makes the connection of the destination node more complex. Sometimes, it results in link failure, and hence the primary route is failed, which means an alternative route is required to transmit the packets. It required multiple paths from the source node to destination node with a stable path connecting the source node. This issue makes MANET routing a crucial task. To address these problems, multipath routing in MANET is discussed in this paper. Multipath routing provides various paths for a single source node to a single destination node. It is more important to consider load balancing and fault tolerance when establishing the multipath routing mechanism. This paper describes the various type of challenges along with their respective multipath routing protocols in MANETs.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Muhammad Fayaz ◽  
Gulzar Mehmood ◽  
Ajab Khan ◽  
Sohail Abbas ◽  
Muhammad Fayaz ◽  

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a group of nodes constituting a network of mobile nodes without predefined and pre-established architecture where mobile nodes can communicate without any dedicated access points or base stations. In MANETs, a node may act as a host as well as a router. Nodes in the network can send and receive packets through intermediate nodes. However, the existence of malicious and selfish nodes in MANETs severely degrades network performance. The identification of such nodes in the network and their isolation from the network is a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, a simple reputation-based scheme is proposed which uses the consumption and contribution information for selfish node detection and cooperation enforcement. Nodes failing to cooperate are detached from the network to save resources of other nodes with good reputation. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme outperforms the benchmark scheme in terms of NRL (normalized routing load), PDF (packet delivery fraction), and packet drop in the presence of malicious and selfish attacks. Furthermore, our scheme identifies the selfish nodes quickly and accurately as compared to the benchmark scheme.

Ajay Vyas ◽  
Margam Suthar

Mobility models are used to evaluated the network protocols of the ad hoc network using the simulation. The random waypoint model is a model for mobility which is usually used for performance evaluation of ad-hoc mobile network. Mobile nodes have the dynamic mobility in the ad hoc network so the mobility model plays an important role to evaluate the protocol performance.In this article, we developed modify random waypoint mobility (MRWM) model based on random waypoint for the mobile ad hoc network. In this article, the comparative analysis of modifying random waypoint mobility and random waypoint model on the ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol has been done for large wireless ad hoc network (100 nodes) with the random mobile environment for the 1800s simulation time. To enhance the confidence on the protocol widespread simulations were accomplished under heavy traffic (i.e. 80 nodes) condition. The proposed model protocol has been investigated with the performance metrics: throughput; packet delivery ratio; packet dropping ratio; the end to end delay and normalized routing overhead. The obtained results revealed that proposed modify random waypoint mobility model reduces the mobility as compared to the random waypoint mobility model and it is trace is more realist.

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