non volatile memory
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Shaahin Angizi ◽  
Navid Khoshavi ◽  
Andrew Marshall ◽  
Peter Dowben ◽  
Deliang Fan

Magneto-Electric FET ( MEFET ) is a recently developed post-CMOS FET, which offers intriguing characteristics for high-speed and low-power design in both logic and memory applications. In this article, we present MeF-RAM , a non-volatile cache memory design based on 2-Transistor-1-MEFET ( 2T1M ) memory bit-cell with separate read and write paths. We show that with proper co-design across MEFET device, memory cell circuit, and array architecture, MeF-RAM is a promising candidate for fast non-volatile memory ( NVM ). To evaluate its cache performance in the memory system, we, for the first time, build a device-to-architecture cross-layer evaluation framework to quantitatively analyze and benchmark the MeF-RAM design with other memory technologies, including both volatile memory (i.e., SRAM, eDRAM) and other popular non-volatile emerging memory (i.e., ReRAM, STT-MRAM, and SOT-MRAM). The experiment results for the PARSEC benchmark suite indicate that, as an L2 cache memory, MeF-RAM reduces Energy Area Latency ( EAT ) product on average by ~98% and ~70% compared with typical 6T-SRAM and 2T1R SOT-MRAM counterparts, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Saman Froehlich ◽  
Saeideh Shirinzadeh ◽  
Rolf Drechsler

Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is an emerging non-volatile memory technology. Besides its low power consumption and its high scalability, its inherent computation capabilities make ReRAM especially interesting for future computer architectures. Merging computations into the memory is a promising solution for overcoming the memory bottleneck. To perform computations in ReRAM, efficient synthesis strategies for Boolean functions have to be developed. In this article, we give a thorough presentation of how to employ parallel computing capabilities of ReRAM for the synthesis of functions given state-of-the-art graph-based representations AIGs or BDDs. Additionally, we introduce a new graph-based representation called m-And-Inverter Graph (m-AIGs), which allows us to fully exploit the computing capabilities of ReRAM. In the simulations, we show that our proposed approaches outperform state-of-the art synthesis strategies, and we show the superiority of m-AIGs over the standard AIG representation for ReRAM-based synthesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Yandong Luo ◽  
Panni Wang ◽  
Shimeng Yu

In this article, we propose a hardware accelerator design using ferroelectric transistor (FeFET)-based hybrid precision synapse (HPS) for deep neural network (DNN) on-chip training. The drain erase scheme for FeFET programming is incorporated for both FeFET HPS design and FeFET buffer design. By using drain erase, high-density FeFET buffers can be integrated onchip to store the intermediate input-output activations and gradients, which reduces the energy consuming off-chip DRAM access. Architectural evaluation results show that the energy efficiency could be improved by 1.2× ∼ 2.1×, 3.9× ∼ 6.0× compared to the other HPS-based designs and emerging non-volatile memory baselines, respectively. The chip area is reduced by 19% ∼ 36% compared with designs using SRAM on-chip buffer even though the capacity of FeFET buffer is increased. Besides, by utilizing drain erase scheme for FeFET programming, the chip area is reduced by 11% ∼ 28.5% compared with the designs using body erase scheme.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Mengya Lei ◽  
Fan Li ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Dan Feng ◽  
Xiaomin Zou ◽  

Data security is an indispensable part of non-volatile memory (NVM) systems. However, implementing data security efficiently on NVM is challenging, since we have to guarantee the consistency of user data and the related security metadata. Existing consistency schemes ignore the recoverability of the SGX style integrity tree (SIT) and the access correlation between metadata blocks, thereby generating unnecessary NVM write traffic. In this article, we propose SecNVM, an efficient and write-friendly metadata crash consistency scheme for secure NVM. SecNVM utilizes the observation that for a lazily updated SIT, the lost tree nodes after a crash can be recovered by the corresponding child nodes in NVM. It reduces the SIT persistency overhead through a restrained write-back metadata cache and exploits the SIT inter-layer dependency for recovery. Next, leveraging the strong access correlation between the counter and DMAC, SecNVM improves the efficiency of security metadata access through a novel collaborative counter-DMAC scheme. In addition, it adopts a lightweight address tracker to reduce the cost of address tracking for fast recovery. Experiments show that compared to the state-of-the-art schemes, SecNVM improves the performance and decreases write traffic a lot, and achieves an acceptable recovery time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (POPL) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Azalea Raad ◽  
Luc Maranget ◽  
Viktor Vafeiadis

Existing semantic formalisations of the Intel-x86 architecture cover only a small fragment of its available features that are relevant for the consistency semantics of multi-threaded programs as well as the persistency semantics of programs interfacing with non-volatile memory. We extend these formalisations to cover: (1) non-temporal writes, which provide higher performance and are used to ensure that updates are flushed to memory; (2) reads and writes to other Intel-x86 memory types, namely uncacheable, write-combined, and write-through; as well as (3) the interaction between these features. We develop our formal model in both operational and declarative styles, and prove that the two characterisations are equivalent. We have empirically validated our formalisation of the consistency semantics of these additional features and their subtle interactions by extensive testing on different Intel-x86 implementations.


Abstract Ge2Sb2Te5 is the most successful phase-change alloy in non-volatile memory using the amorphous-crystal phase transition. In deriving further high performance in switching, especially SET speed (from amorphous to crystal transition) should still be modified. In this work, It was examined an ideal Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy based on the Kolobov model using ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, it was cleared that a uniaxial exchange between vacancies and Ge atoms is the crucial role in realizing high-speed switching and a large contrast in the resonance bonding state in the alloy. The vacancy engineering enables the alloy switching speed extremely faster.

Mohd Syafiq Mispan ◽  
Aiman Zakwan Jidin ◽  
Muhammad Raihaan Kamarudin ◽  
Haslinah Mohd Nasir

An emerging technology known as Physical unclonable function (PUF) can provide a hardware root-of-trust in building the trusted computing system. PUF exploits the intrinsic process variations during the integrated circuit (IC) fabrication to generate a unique response. This unique response differs from one PUF to the other similar type of PUFs. Static random-access memory PUF (SRAM-PUF) is one of the memory-based PUFs in which the response is generated during the memory power-up process. Non-volatile memory (NVM) architecture like SRAM is available in off-the-shelf microcontroller devices. Exploiting the inherent SRAM as PUF could wide-spread the adoption of PUF. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the suitability of inherent SRAM available in ATMega2560 microcontroller on Arduino platform as PUF that can provide a unique fingerprint. First, we analyze the start-up values (SUVs) of memory cells and select only the cells that show random values after the power-up process. Subsequently, we statistically analyze the characteristic of fifteen SRAM-PUFs which include uniqueness, reliability, and uniformity. Based on our findings, the SUVs of fifteen on-chip SRAMs achieve 42.64% uniqueness, 97.28% reliability, and 69.16% uniformity. Therefore, we concluded that the available SRAM in off-the-shelf commodity hardware has good quality to be used as PUF.

Dinesh Pamunuwa ◽  
Elliott Worsey ◽  
Jamie D. Reynolds ◽  
Derek Seward ◽  
Harold M. H. Chong ◽  

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