Volume 11B serves as a reference and guide to help engineers determine the causes of failure in plastic components and make corrective adjustments through design and manufacturing modifications. It contains seven major divisions, covering polymer science and processing, material selection and design, chemical, thermal, and physical analysis, mechanical behavior and testing, degradation mechanisms, systematic failure analysis, and life assessment and optimization. It examines a wide range of factors that contribute to the properties and behaviors of engineering plastics and the effect of thermal and mechanical stresses, impact loading, fatigue, wear, weathering, moisture and chemical exposure, photochemical aging, microbial degradation, and elevated temperatures. It addresses issues such as flammability, environmental stress cracking, crazing, and stress whitening and describes the unique characteristics of polymer fracture and how to assess and predict service life using fracture mechanics. It also presents and analyzes numerous examples of failure, including design and manufacturing related failures, wear failures of reinforced plastics, and failures due to creep and yielding.
The geodynamic origin of melting anomalies found at the surface, often referred to as “hotspots,” is classically attributed to a mantle plume process. The distribution of hotspots along mid-ocean-ridge spreading systems around the globe, however, questions the universal validity of this concept. Here, the preferential association of hotspots with slow- to intermediate-spreading centers and not fast-spreading centers, an observation contrary to the expected effect of ridge suction forces on upwelling mantle plumes, is explained by a new mechanism for producing melting anomalies at shallow (<2.3 GPa) depths. By combining the effects of both chemical and thermal density changes during partial melting of the mantle (using appropriate latent heat and depth-dependent thermal expansivity parameters), we find that mantle residues experience an overall instantaneous increase in density when melting occurs at <2.3 GPa. This controversial finding is due to thermal contraction of material during melting, which outweighs the chemical buoyancy due to melting at shallow pressures (where thermal expansivities are highest). These dense mantle residues are likely to locally sink beneath spreading centers if ridge suction forces are modest, thus driving an increase in the flow of fertile mantle through the melting window and increasing magmatic production. This leads us to question our understanding of sub–spreading center dynamics, where we now suggest a portion of locally inverted mantle flow results in hotspots. Such inverted flow presents an alternative mechanism to upwelling hot mantle plumes for the generation of excess melt at near-ridge hotspots, i.e., dense downwelling of mantle residue locally increasing the flow of fertile mantle through the melting window. Near-ridge hotspots, therefore, may not require the elevated temperatures commonly invoked to account for excess melting. The proposed mechanism also satisfies counterintuitive observations of ridge-bound hotspots at slow- to intermediate-spreading centers, yet not at fast-spreading centers, where large dynamic ridge suction forces likely overwhelm density-driven downwelling.
The lack of observations of such downwelling in numerical modeling studies to date reflects the generally high chemical depletion buoyancy and/or low thermal expansivity parameter values employed in simulations, which we find to be unrepresentative for melting at <2.3 GPa. We therefore invite future studies to review the values used for parameters affecting density changes during melting (e.g., depletion buoyancy, latent heat of melting, specific heat capacity, thermal expansivity), which quite literally have the potential to turn our understanding of mantle dynamics upside down.
The creep-fatigue crack growth problem remains challenging since materials exhibit different linear and nonlinear behaviors depending on the environmental and loading conditions. In this paper, we systematically carried out a series of creep-fatigue crack growth experiments to evaluate the influence from temperature, stress ratio, and dwell time for the nickel-based superalloy GH4720Li. A transition from coupled fatigue-dominated fracture to creep-dominated fracture was observed with the increase of dwell time at 600 °C, while only the creep-dominated fracture existed at 700 °C, regardless of the dwell time. A concise binomial crack growth model was constructed on the basis of existing phenomenal models, where the linear terms are included to express the behavior under pure creep loading, and the nonlinear terms were introduced to represent the behavior near the fracture toughness and during the creep-fatigue interaction. Through the model implementation and validation of the proposed model, the correlation coefficient is higher than 0.9 on ten out of twelve sets of experimental data, revealing the accuracy of the proposed model. This work contributes to an enrichment of creep-fatigue crack growth data in the typical nickel-based superalloy at elevated temperatures and could be referable in the modeling for damage tolerance assessment of turbine disks.
Speciﬁc conductance and frequency-dependent resistance (impedance) data are widely utilized for understanding the physicochemical characteristics of aqueous and non-aqueous ﬂuids and for evaluating the performance of chemical processes. However, the implementation of such an in-situ probe in high-temperature and high-pressure environments is not trivial. This work provides a description of both the hardware and software associated with implementing a parallel-type in-situ electrochemical sensor. The sensor can be used for in-line monitoring of thermal desalination processes and for impedance measurements in ﬂuids at high temperature and pressure. A comparison between the experimental measurements on the speciﬁc conductance in aqueous sodium chloride solutions and the conductance model demonstrate that the methodology yields reasonable agreement with both the model and literature data. A combination of hardware components, a softwarebased correction for experimental artifacts, and computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) calculations used in this work provide a sound basis for implementing such in-situ electrochemical sensors to measure frequency-dependent resistance spectra.