Physicochemical Characteristics
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Muhammad Akhlaq ◽  
Shinawar Waseem Ali ◽  
Ayesha Murtaza ◽  
Muhammad Arshad Javed ◽  
Aftab Ahmad Khan ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Ionica Coţovanu ◽  
Silvia Mironeasa

The study was conducted to determine the influence of buckwheat fractions (BF) on the physicochemical characteristics of wheat flour (WF), dough rheology, and bread quality parameters. Buckwheat seeds’ fractionation influenced the microstructure and molecular conformation depending on the particle size (PS). The protein content of the WF–BF improved when the medium PS was added and decreased for large and small PS. Lipids and ash increased with the increase in BF amount in all samples in comparison with the control. Dough tenacity increased with BF addition, being higher than in WF dough only when large PS were added, while samples with medium and small PS presented a lower tenacity in comparison with the control. Dough extensibility decreased significantly in all samples when BF increased, as follows: M ˃ S ˃ L. Dough viscoelastic moduli increased proportionally when adding large PS, while the addition of medium PS (5–15%) and small PS decreased it. Bread firmness, springiness, and gumminess rose proportionally with the addition level. Bread volume decreased when BF increased, and medium PS had a good influence on this parameter. Bread porosity and elasticity presented higher values than for the control bread, but these decreased when the BF amount increased. Flour and bread crust and crumb color parameters were also influenced by different fractions of BF addition.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Sadia Afzal ◽  
Muhammad Zahid ◽  
Zulfiqar Ahmad Rehan ◽  
H. M. Fayzan Shakir ◽  
Hamza Javed ◽  

Ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in every health care center and hospital. Ultrasound gel is used as a coupling medium in all ultrasound procedures to replace air between the transducer and the patient’s skin, as ultrasound waves have trouble in traveling through air. This research was performed to formulate an inexpensive alternative to commercially available ultrasound gel as it is expensive and imported from other countries. Different formulations with different concentrations of carbopol 980 (CAR 980) and methylparaben were prepared with natural ingredients such as aloe vera gel and certain available chemicals that have no harmful effects on the skin. To justify the efficiency of the formulations; necessary physicochemical characteristics such as visual clarity, homogeneity, transparency, skin irritation, antibacterial activity, pH, stability, spreadability, conductivity, acoustic impedance, viscosity, and cost were evaluated. Moreover, a comparison study was also conducted with commercially available ultrasound gel that was utilized as a control. All samples showed excellent transparency and no microbial growth. S1 was the only formulation that met all of the requirements for commercial ultrasound gel and produced images that were similar to those produced by commercial ultrasound gel. So, this formulation could be used as an alternative to expensive commercial ultrasound gel for taking images in hospitals and medical centers.

Vinícius Lopes Borela ◽  
Ernandes Rodrigues de Alencar ◽  
Marcio Antônio Mendonça ◽  
Heesup Han ◽  
António Raposo ◽  

Meat is a source of protein widely consumed by the population in many countries due mainly to the nutritional aspects, sensory characteristics, and cultural aspects. The meat cooking preparation can promote significant changes in the meat’s chemical composition and physical characteristics. Such transformations can impact both the acceptance of the product and consumers’ health. Due to the different thermal processes altering the physical-chemical characteristics of meat, the present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of fillet steak submitted to different cooking methods: pan-frying with and without oil and air fryer. We performed the analysis to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics considering moisture, lipid, protein, ash, sodium, and potassium content, cooking loss index and colorimetry in three degrees of doneness of the meat, rare, medium, and well done. The fillet steak prepared by pan-frying with oil lost higher moisture and weight than the other samples. The air fryer method presented the highest moisture content. There was a significant difference in lipid content in which the pan-frying with oil fillet steak showed the highest amount of lipids. The pan-frying with oil steak fillet also presented more changes in the colorimetric parameters evaluated compared to the other samples. The pan-frying with oil cooking method promoted more pronounced changes in the steak fillet, and the cooking air fryer, the changes in meat quality are less pronounced. Therefore, the air fryer can be considered a good alternative for cooking meat.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Miriam M. Mendoza-Taco ◽  
Aldenamar Cruz-Hernández ◽  
Angélica A. Ochoa-Flores ◽  
Josafat A. Hernández-Becerra ◽  
Armando Gómez-Vázquez ◽  

This study determined the effect of feeding Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extracts to lactating ewes on the physicochemical composition of their milk and yogurt during storage (4 °C for 14 days) and the sensory acceptance of the yogurt. Over 45 days, 24 multiparous lactating Pelibuey and Katahdin ewes (two days in lactation) were randomly assigned to four groups: MO-0, basal diet (BD) + 0 mL MO; MO-20, BD + 20 mL MO; MO-40, BD + 40 mL MO; and MO-60, BD + 60 mL MO. In the milk, an increase of 6% in protein, 26% in leucine, 14% in ash, and 1% in the pH (6.71) was observed with MO-60. The density values decreased by 0.3% at a higher dose of MO compared to MO-0, while the nonfat solids (NFS) in the milk were similar between the treatments. In the yogurt, an increase of 5% in protein, 113% in leucine (MO-20), 9% in NFS, and a reduction of 2% in moisture with MO-60 was observed. The acidity reflected an inverse relationship to the pH, as did the moisture and NFS with MO-60. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with MO in lactating ewes did not have negative effects on the chemical composition of their yogurt during storage (14 days). Overall, feeding sheep with 20 mL of MO positively influenced the physicochemical composition of their milk and yogurt during storage.

Ismail Ismail ◽  
Muhammad Hamayun ◽  
Anwar Hussain ◽  
Amjad Iqbal ◽  
Sumera Khan ◽  

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