soot formation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 240 ◽  
pp. 111960
Author(s):  
Niko P. Niemelä ◽  
Fanni Mylläri ◽  
Niina Kuittinen ◽  
Minna Aurela ◽  
Aku Helin ◽  
...  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 122735
Author(s):  
Jiun Cai Ong ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Morten Skov Jensen ◽  
Jens Honoré Walther

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122244
Author(s):  
Andisheh Khanehzar ◽  
Francisco Cepeda ◽  
Seth B. Dworkin

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhanhong Xiang ◽  
Karnsiree Chen ◽  
Charles McEnally ◽  
Lisa Pfefferle

With the growing importance of climate change, soot emissions from engines have been receiving increasing attention since black carbon is the second largest source of global warming. A sooting tendency can be used to quantify the extent of soot formation in a combustion device for a given fuel molecule, and therefore to quantify the soot reduction benefits of alternative fuels. However real fuels are complex mixtures of multiple components. In this work, we have used experimental methods to investigate how the sooting tendency of a blended fuel mixture is related to the sooting tendencies of the individual components. A test matrix was formulated that includes sixteen mixtures of six components that are representative of the main categories of hydrocarbons in diesel (eicosane (ECO) for alkanes, isocetane (ICE) for isoalkanes, butylcyclohexane (BCH) for cycloalkanes, 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) for aromatics, tetralin for naphthoaromatics, and methyl-decanoate (MDC) for oxygenates). Most of the mixtures contain three to five components. The sooting tendency of each mixture was characterized by yield sooting index (YSI), which is based on the soot yield when a methane/air nonpremixed flame is doped with 1000 ppm of the test fuel. The YSIs were measured experimentally. The results show that the blending behavior is linear, i.e., the YSI of the mixtures is the mole-fraction-weighted average of the component YSIs. Experimental results have shown that the sooting tendency of a fuel mixture can be accurately estimated as the linear combination of the individual components. In addition, mass density of the mixtures is also measured, and a linear blending rule is applied to test whether mixing rules exist for mass density of diesel mixtures in this study. Results also have shown that the mixing rule tested in this study is valid and mass density of a mixture can be accurately estimated from the linear combination of the individual components.


Author(s):  
Wenjin Qin ◽  
Dengbiao Lu ◽  
Lihui Xu

Abstract In this research, n-dodecane and JW are selected as single and multi-component surrogate fuel of aviation kerosene to study the Jet-A spray combustion characteristics. The spray combustion phenomena are simulated using large eddy simulation coupled with detailed chemical reaction mechanism. Proper orthogonal decomposition method is applied to analyze the flow field characteristics, and the instantaneous velocity field are decomposed into four parts, namely the mean field, coherent field, transition field and turbulent field, respectively. The four subfields have their own characteristics. In terms of different fuels, JW has a higher intensity of coherent structures and local vortices than n-dodecane, which promotes the fuel-air mixing and improves the combustion characteristics, and the soot formation is significantly reduced. In addition, with the increase of initial temperature, the combustion is more intense, the ignition delay time is advanced, the flame lift-off length is reduced, and soot formation is increased accordingly.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ramees Khaleel Rahman ◽  
Farhan Arafin ◽  
Robert Greene ◽  
Erik M. Ninnemann ◽  
Subith Vasu

2022 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 118094
Author(s):  
Min Zhang ◽  
Jiun Cai Ong ◽  
Kar Mun Pang ◽  
Xue-Song Bai ◽  
Jens H. Walther

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