Climatic Variability
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdullah Al Mamun ◽  
A R M Towfiqul Islam ◽  
GM Monirul Alam ◽  
Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker ◽  
Michael Odei Erdiaw-Kwasie ◽  
...  

Abstract Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. In general, Charland (Riverine Island) communities are frequently affected by floods, riverbank erosion, and other climatic hazards, which cause many to lose their sources of livelihoods and properties and making them more vulnerable. Using survey data of 262 rural households, this study investigates the extent of livelihood vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards of the Charland communities by applying the climate change vulnerability index (CVI) (i.e. UN-IPCC vulnerability framework) and the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) to develop context-specific interventions for building climate and livelihood resilience. The two approaches of vulnerability assessment were modified to incorporate local contexts and indigenous knowledge into 41 sub-components. The result shows that LVI and CVI values are different between Charland communities. The LVI index shows that households in Char Jotindro-Narayan (0.148) are more vulnerable than Char Kulaghat (0.139). The CVI values for Char Jotindro-Narayan (0.633) are slightly lower than for Char Kulaghat (0.639). The major vulnerability factors were identified as the social networks, food self-sufficiency, natural disasters, and climatic variability. The study also indicates that flood, riverbank erosion, unemployment, and access to communication, market, and basic service opportunities are the major biophysical and socioeconomic factors determining livelihood vulnerability. The context-specific sustainable policies and development initiatives are required to improve the adaptive capacity of Charland communities across Bangladesh and thereby building their climate and livelihood resilience.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Suraj Das ◽  
Anindya Jayanta Mishra

AbstractGlobal climate change has become the most significant challenge of modern times, confronting the lives and security of vulnerable societies around the world. The anticipated impact of climatic variability will be severe on local communities, particularly those residing near high-risk prone zones such as coastal areas and mountain regions. The indigenous knowledge and locally-held beliefs act as a refuge, which also prompt and prohibit the responsiveness towards climatic instabilities. Subsequently, ensuring food and nutritional security is the primary task of strategy makers. Hence, comprehensive knowledge of the indigenous traditional food habits and cultural values, beliefs, and gendered norms need to be explored on a priority basis to address the adverse impact of environmental changes, emphasizing the urgency of the Himalayan societies. Despite that, the integration of indigenous knowledge is not on the priority list of the researcher. Thus, this article reviews the existing literature on customary food habits to analyze the bidirectional association between climate change and the dietary practice of the indigenous communities for adaptation policy. PRISMA Statement technique is used for a systematic review of Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 24 related studies from 14 countries, with a specific focus on the Himalayan region, which resulted into four themes viz. impact of climatic variability of indigenous societies, the impact of climate change on community’s customary food beliefs, the impact of climate change on gender defined norms, climate change adaption strategies. The findings show that the current literature has failed to include the socio-ecological beliefs of traditional communities associated with dietary habits. Thus, the focus should be given to integrate the locally held beliefs of customary societies for the successful adoption of climate change adaptation and food security programs.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tesfaye Negasa ◽  
Genemo Barso ◽  
Alemu Weyessa

Abstract Increasing of demand for water, allocation of limited water resources, climatic variability, degradation of water in the environment and developing of policies for sustainable water use are issues of increasing concern in the Kontsa irrigation project. This study aimed at assessing the effects of selected irrigation methods on water demand and allocation among farmers in Kontsa irrigation project. The study employed both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected by interviewing 80 farmers, key informant interviews and observation of the project area while secondary data were collected from different agencies of Ethiopia. For this study Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model was used to model the current situation of irrigation water demand and also to create scenario for future irrigation water demand. The model was set up for a current account year in 2015 and last year of scenarios in 2040 based on the available data. Then the irrigation water demand of the project area was modeled while giving consideration for existing and planned developments in the area. The result from the current situation of irrigation water demand indicated that the demand was satisfied fully and the unmet demand under the base year (2015) was zero. Additionally, irrigation expansion scenario was created and the result of this scenario indicates the increment of irrigation water demand as compared to the base year and the reference scenario. The study also revealed that furrow irrigation and plastic buckets were the main irrigation techniques employed by farmers in the study area.


2022 ◽  
pp. 235-259
Author(s):  
Elhoucine Essefi ◽  
Soumaya Hajji ◽  
Mohamed Ali Tagorti

The Sidi El Hani Wetland is located in Eastern Tunisia. It represents the natural outlet of an endorheic system, Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani, and it collects all the eroded sediment from this watershed. In this chapter, the visual core description focused on three reference sandy bands and on the concept of grey scale variability in order to infer the clay pan response to the climatic variability and erosion during the last two millennia. First, in the uppermost part, the stage Warming Present (WP) stretches from (1954-80= 1874) to 1993, i.e. ≈120yrs; the establishment of modern conditions is characterized by stable conditions with high grey scale. Added to a small salt crust, this period is dominated by a clayey sedimentation. Second, the stage C4 is called the Late Little Ice Age (Late LIA); it stretches between the 80yrBP and 400yrBP, i.e., 320yrs. It is characterized by intermediate GS values; the clayey sedimentation makes up the twofold and threefold laminates. Based on laser granulometer, the genetic approach shows the interplay of eolian and hydraulic erosion.


2022 ◽  
pp. 181-187
Author(s):  
Samuel Toucanne ◽  
Filipa Naughton ◽  
Teresa Rodrigues ◽  
Natalia Vázquez-Riveiros ◽  
María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi

2022 ◽  
pp. 175-180
Author(s):  
Amaelle Landais ◽  
María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi ◽  
Samuel Toucanne ◽  
Teresa Rodrigues ◽  
Filipa Naughton
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
pp. 519-522
Author(s):  
Philip D. Hughes ◽  
David Palacios ◽  
José M. García-Ruiz ◽  
Nuria Andrés
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
pp. 252-266
Author(s):  
Elhoucine Essefi

This work aimed to study the cyclicity of the geochemical chemical parameters and the carbonate percentages along a 59 cm core from the sebkha of Mchiguig, Central Tunisia. In fact, from the bottom upwards, six climatic phases were recorded including the Warming Present (Great Acceleration), the Late Little Ice Age (Anthropocene), the Early Little Ice Age, the Medieval Climatic Anomaly, the Dark Age, and the Roman Warm Period. In fact, the spectral analysis of the studied parameters visualized many cycles. Those cycles are related to sun activity, oceanographic, and atmospheric factors. Solar activity generated 500 yr cycles; however, the oceanographic circulation generated other cycles of 1500 yr and 700-800 yr. The 1500 yr cycle may be the result of the solar activity and NAO-like circulation.


2022 ◽  
pp. 267-279
Author(s):  
Tagorti Mohamed Ali ◽  
Elhoucine Essefi

Extreme conditions in wetlands may be the niche of development of colonies of bacteria. In this chapter, the authors study the gnotobiology of moderate bacteria within the saline wetland of Sidi El Hani. In terms of geology, the coring within the sedimentary filling of the wetland shows color variation from white, grey, black to red related to the variability of bacteria species. On the other hand, in terms of microbiological investigations, isolates of bacteria show a variability from Gram+ to Gram-, from oxidase+ to oxidase-, from catalase+ to catalase-. This geobiological variability is related to radical change in climatic conditions. In doing so, the wetland of Sidi El Hani may record the climatic variability during the Late Holocene. On the other hand, it may be considered as terrestrial analogue with a development of extremophiles.


2022 ◽  
pp. 171-189
Author(s):  
Pankaj Kumar Gupta ◽  
Brijesh Kumar Yadav ◽  
Devesh Sharma

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