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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 378
Author(s):  
Maria Ramirez Prieto ◽  
Mylène Ratelle ◽  
Brian Douglas Laird ◽  
Kelly Skinner

A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The main aim of the present study is to describe dietary intakes for macronutrients and micronutrients in traditional and market food from the Mackenzie Valley study. We also show the trends of contributions and differences of dietary intakes over time from 1994 data collected and reported by the Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (CINE) in 1996. Based on 24-h dietary recall data, the study uses descriptive statistics to describe the observed dietary intake of the Dene First Nations communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT. Indigenous people in Canada, like the sub-Arctic regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the NWT, continue to consume traditional foods, although as a small percentage of their total dietary intake. The observed dietary intake calls for action to ensure that traditional food remains a staple as it is critical for the wellbeing of Dene in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions and across the territory.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Selina Fyfe ◽  
Heather E. Smyth ◽  
Horst Joachim Schirra ◽  
Michael Rychlik ◽  
Yasmina Sultanbawa

Australia is a rich source of biodiverse native plants that are mostly unstudied by western food science despite many of them being ethnofoods of Australian Indigenous people. Finding and understanding the relevant policy and legal requirements to scientifically assess these plants in a responsible way is a major challenge for food scientists. This work aims to give an overview of what the legal and policy framework is in relation to food chemistry on Australian native plant foods, to clarify the relationships between the guidelines, laws, policies and ethics and to discuss some of the challenges they present in food chemistry. This work provides the framework of Indigenous rights, international treaties, federal and state laws and ethical guidelines including key legislation and guidelines. It discusses the specific areas that are applicable to food chemistry: the collection of plant foods, the analysis of the samples and working with Indigenous communities. This brief perspective presents a framework that can be utilized by food chemists when developing responsible research involving plant foods native to northern Australia and can help them understand some of the complexity of working in this research area.


Author(s):  
Robin B. Harris ◽  
Heidi E. Brown ◽  
Rachelle L. Begay ◽  
Priscilla R. Sanderson ◽  
Carmenlita Chief ◽  
...  

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial stomach infections and is implicated in a majority of non-cardia gastric cancer. While gastric cancer has decreased in the United States (US), the incidence in the Navajo Nation is nearly four times higher than surrounding Non-Hispanic White populations. Little is known about H. pylori prevalence in this population or other Indigenous communities in the lower 48 states. In this cross-sectional study, 101 adults representing 73 households from three Navajo Nation chapter communities completed surveys and a urea breath test for active H. pylori. Accounting for intrahousehold correlation, H. pylori prevalence was 56.4% (95% CI, 45.4–66.8) and 72% of households had at least one infected person. The odds of having an active infection in households using unregulated water were 8.85 (95% CI, 1.50–53.38) that of the use of regulated water, and males had 3.26 (95% CI, 1.05–10.07) higher odds than female. The prevalence of H. pylori in Navajo is similar to that seen in Alaska Natives. Further investigation into factors associated with prevention of infection is needed as well as understanding barriers to screening and treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Author(s):  
Lucía Guzmán ◽  
Jorge Luis Malla ◽  
Jorge Ramírez ◽  
Gianluca Gilardoni ◽  
James Calva ◽  
...  

Control measures against common cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus are of the upmost importance because of considerable, deleterious impact on a farm’s economy. Due to resistance phenomena to synthetic acaricides being a constraint in affected farms, the search for plant derivatives as acaricides has increased dramatically in recent years. In this work, essential oils obtained from two Ecuadorian plants, Ambrosia peruviana and Lepechinia mutica (EOAp, EOLm), traditionally used as insecticides in indigenous communities, were studied on larvae and engorged females at the parasitic stages of R. microplus. Larvae and females were treated with five (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1%) and six concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2 and 4%), respectively, of each EOsAp/Lm. A 98–99% larval mortality was achieved with 0.5% of both EOsAp/Lm. EOAp inhibited oviposition and egg hatching up to 82% and 80%, respectively, and had an overall efficacy of 93.12%. Efficacy of EOLm was 72.84%, due to the low influence of EOLm on reproductive parameters. By steam distillation and GC-MS analysis, γ-Curcumene was identified as the main constituent (52.02%) in the EOAp and Shyobunol (10.80%) in EOLm. The results suggest that major components of both essential oils should be further studied as promissory acaricides against R. microplus.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Bursák ◽  
Alžběta Danielisová ◽  
Tomáš Magna ◽  
Petr Pajdla ◽  
Jitka Míková ◽  
...  

AbstractAncient brass (aurichalcum) was a valued commodity in the Antiquity, notably because of its gold-like appearance. After mastering brass fabrication using the cementation procedure in the first century BC in the Mediterranean, this material became widely used by the Romans for coins, jewellery and other artefacts. Because of its visual qualities, it is believed that since this period, brass played an important role in diplomatic and economic contacts with indigenous communities, notably Celtic and Germanic tribes north of Danube and west of Rhine. To test this hypothesis, we performed for the first time the advanced statistical multivariate analysis based on chemical composition and lead isotope systematics, coupled with informed typo-chronological categorisation, of a suite of late Iron Age and Early Roman period (first century BC – first century AD) brass and other copper-alloy artefacts from the territory of Bohemia. In order to to discuss their provenance, the results were compared to known contemporary sources of material. The new results for brass artefacts from this early phase of the massive occurrence of Roman aurichalcum in the Barbarian territories point to the ore deposits in the western Mediterranean or the Massif Central area in Gaul, consistent with historical events. These new findings underscore the great economic and political importance of the new and rich mineral resources in the Transalpine Gaul acquired due to Caesar's military campaigns.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Suraj Das ◽  
Anindya Jayanta Mishra

AbstractGlobal climate change has become the most significant challenge of modern times, confronting the lives and security of vulnerable societies around the world. The anticipated impact of climatic variability will be severe on local communities, particularly those residing near high-risk prone zones such as coastal areas and mountain regions. The indigenous knowledge and locally-held beliefs act as a refuge, which also prompt and prohibit the responsiveness towards climatic instabilities. Subsequently, ensuring food and nutritional security is the primary task of strategy makers. Hence, comprehensive knowledge of the indigenous traditional food habits and cultural values, beliefs, and gendered norms need to be explored on a priority basis to address the adverse impact of environmental changes, emphasizing the urgency of the Himalayan societies. Despite that, the integration of indigenous knowledge is not on the priority list of the researcher. Thus, this article reviews the existing literature on customary food habits to analyze the bidirectional association between climate change and the dietary practice of the indigenous communities for adaptation policy. PRISMA Statement technique is used for a systematic review of Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 24 related studies from 14 countries, with a specific focus on the Himalayan region, which resulted into four themes viz. impact of climatic variability of indigenous societies, the impact of climate change on community’s customary food beliefs, the impact of climate change on gender defined norms, climate change adaption strategies. The findings show that the current literature has failed to include the socio-ecological beliefs of traditional communities associated with dietary habits. Thus, the focus should be given to integrate the locally held beliefs of customary societies for the successful adoption of climate change adaptation and food security programs.


Author(s):  
Jennifer Korosi ◽  
Kristen Coleman ◽  
Grace N Hoskin ◽  
Amanda Little ◽  
Emily Stewart ◽  
...  

Geographic context matters when trying to understand how permafrost thaw impacts northern freshwater biodiversity in a warming climate. Most risk to freshwater from thawing permafrost is associated with abrupt thaw processes known as thermokarst. Lake sediments can provide a record of thermokarst landscape development and associated biogeochemical and biodiversity trends over long timescales, providing a tool to link thermokarst geomorphology with freshwater biodiversity. We describe how paleolimnology, with its inherent emphasis on long-term perspectives, can characterize the shifting geographic template of warming thermokarst landscapes and its implications for biodiversity. We suggest aligning thermokarst lake paleolimnological research with hypothesis-testing frameworks used by permafrost hydrologists and biogeochemists and by the Freshwater Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program, and advocate for knowledge co-production with northern Indigenous communities. Lastly, we stress the importance of considering geographic context in the choice of study sites to ensure that diverse thermokarst landscapes are represented (especially those most vulnerable to warming) and that the fine-scale differences in limnological settings that influence ecosystem response to thermokarst stressors are accounted for.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kyle Schang ◽  
Kieran Cox ◽  
Andrew J. Trant

Identifying how past human actions have influenced their environment is essential for understanding the ecological factors that structure contemporary ecosystems. Intertidal resource use by Indigenous Peoples for thousands of years has led to habitation sites containing vast shell midden deposits and facilitating long-term impacts on soil chemistry and drainage. Here we examine how these shell middens have impacted various forest metrics, such as species diversity, community composition, canopy height, and regeneration recruitment to determine if forests on habitation sites differ from the surrounding matrix. We surveyed known habitation sites with archeological evidence indicating past year-round human occupation, within the Hakai Lúxvbálís Conservancy on Calvert and Hecate Islands within the Great Bear Rainforest along British Columbia’s Central Coast. Our results demonstrate that habitation sites exhibit lower tree species richness, less relative species abundances, as such, displayed lower Shannon diversity and inverse Simpson values. The composition of tree communities on habitation sites was statistically different, with western hemlock and western redcedar densities increasing on non-habitation sites. Conversely, regeneration diversity at habitation sites was more even and exhibited elevated Shannon diversity and inverse Simpson values. The community composition of regeneration was more consistent among habitation and non-habitation sites; however, western redcedar, western hemlock and Sitka spruce were more abundant at habitation sites. For all tree species, maximum height was higher within the habitation sites; however, this trend was the most notable in western redcedar and Sitka spruce, which increased by an average of 4.8 m relative to non-habitation sites. Collectively, our findings suggest that long-term habitation alters forest community compositions. The landscape alterations within habitation sites promote conditions needed to support diverse, even, and abundant regeneration communities and consequently increase the height of the dominant coastal tree species. Thus, our results offer evidence that long-term influence by Indigenous communities have a persistent influence on coastal forests.


2022 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 127-139
Author(s):  
V. V. Nikolaev ◽  
I. V. Oktyabrskaya

This article integrates studies relating to the history of urban communities of Siberian and Far Eastern indigenous peoples. A multidisciplinary approach to urbanization processes is used; their stages, rates, causes, and principal characteristics are analyzed. The database consists of our own fi eld fi ndings, published results of sociological studies, and those of All-Union and All-Russian population censuses. Three stages of urbanization affecting indigenous Siberians are described, and their factors and mechanisms are evaluated. The process is characterized by intense migration of indigenous peoples to the towns and cities during the recent period, accompanied by large-scale industrial development, and the transition of aboriginal societies from the traditional to the modern lifestyle. The urbanization, however, has not been completed, because of the underdeveloped urban infrastructure and the fact that many indigenous peoples to the cities had retained their rural traditions. The sa lient characteristic of the urbanization of indigenous peoples in the macroregion is that it was asynchronous, and that its sh ort intense phase, whereby the indigenous peoples mostly moved to nearby towns and urbanized villages in the 1960s–1970s, did not extend to all indigenous communities. Urbanization was incomplete in terms of both quality and quantity, and the integration of indigenous peoples into the urban space has engendered serious problems. According to the All-Russian population census of 2010, only fi ve indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Far East had completed the urbanization process: Kereks, Mansi, Nivkhs, Uilta and Shors. Currently, most indigenous peoples are medium-urbanized. The lowest level of urbanization is among the Soyots, Siberian Tatars, Telengits, Tofalars, Tubalars, Chelkans, Chulyms, and Tozhu Tuvans. We conclude that urbanization among the indigenous peoples is a long, diffi cult, and contradictory process, which, in modern Siberia, triggers many ethnocultural and ethno-social transformations of regional multiethnic communities.


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