irrigation methods
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2022 ◽  
Funda Dökmen ◽  

Abstract Every year, due to the salinity resulting from improper irrigation practices, almost 10 billion ha of agricultural lands across the world cannot be used. Among the main elements (cations) for salinity in regions with dry or semi-dry climate are potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+’2). Using proper irrigation methods as well as ensuring the quality of irrigation water are of great importance in terms of the salinity of agricultural soils. In this study, laboratory analyses of ground water resources for salinity parameters were conducted in the province of Yalova (Taşköprü, Çiftlikköy, and Altınova regions). In the explanation of the analysis results, variations and effects based on the level of salinity were taken into account and the role of small, meso and large scale factors were determined through the use of the wavelet model. The study results would be of use in the estimation of salinity contents of soils with respect to groundwater irrigation in agricultural areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 19-23
Natal'ya Kudryashova ◽  
Galina Bulahtina ◽  
Aleksandr Kudryashov ◽  
Andrey Hyupinin

In recent years, livestock farms in the Astrakhan region have mainly used grasses from natural hayfields and pastures for fodder. But, due to the sharp aridization of the climate, and, as a consequence, the more frequent droughts, as well as the unregulated growth of the number of animals on farms, the reserves of natural herbage are often insufficient. Therefore, the region began to increase the area of sown hayfields for irrigation. The aim of the work is to study the effect of various irrigation methods on the productivity of cereal-leguminous mixtures with multi-cut use in the conditions of light chestnut soils of the Northern Caspian region. The studies were carried out in 2017-2020 in the Astrakhan region. All studied irrigation methods (sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation with a belt laying depth of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m, periodic flooding), with the exception of subsoil irrigation, with an ordinary method of sowing contributed to the development of both cereals and legumes. In these variants of the experiment, cereals occupied a significant part in the total herbage - from 40.0 to 61.0%. When using the spread sowing method, only in one variant, the share of cereal grasses was 54.0% (periodic flooding). In all others with this method of sowing, the amount of cereals in the total mass was insignificant, or they were completely absent. The widespread method of sowing was also the most productive in all the years of research. The maximum yield in the experiment was noted in all variants of the experiment in the third year of the life of grasses in 2019.The highest productivity with the spread method of sowing was noted in 2019 in the variants of the experiment with a belt laying depth of 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m and amounted to 98.1, 104.4 and 111.0 t/ha, respectively. In the variants with the row-sowing method, the yield was lower than with the wide-spread one. The highest yield with this method of sowing was also noted in 2019 in variants with subsurface drip irrigation with a belt laying depth of 0.35 and 0.45 m and amounted to 105.5 and 104.8 t/ha, respectively

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Juan Herrero ◽  
Carmen Castañeda ◽  
Rosa Gómez-Báguena

This article presents and reviews the soil salinity data provided by a rescued vintage agronomic report on an irrigated area of 35,875 ha located in the center of the Ebro River basin, in the NE of mainland Spain. These data come from a soil sampling campaign conducted from May to the first half of July 1975 for the purpose of delineating saline and non-saline soils. The agronomic report was produced in response to demands from farmers to combat soil salinity, and represents the state of the art in those years for salinity studies. Our paper presents the scrubbed soil salinity data for this year, checking their consistency and locating the study sites. The main finding is the unearthing of this heritage report and the discussion of its soil salinity data. We show that the report supplies an assessment and a baseline for further soil salinity tracking by conducting new measurements either by direct soil sampling or by nondestructive techniques, providing an estimate of soil salinity at different locations. This task is feasible, as shown in our previously published articles involving nearby areas. A comparison of the salt amount in the soil over the years would provide a means to evaluate irrigation methods for sustainable land management. This comparison can be conducted simultaneously with analysis of other agricultural features described in the report for the irrigation district in 1975.

2022 ◽  
Tesfaye Negasa ◽  
Genemo Barso ◽  
Alemu Weyessa

Abstract Increasing of demand for water, allocation of limited water resources, climatic variability, degradation of water in the environment and developing of policies for sustainable water use are issues of increasing concern in the Kontsa irrigation project. This study aimed at assessing the effects of selected irrigation methods on water demand and allocation among farmers in Kontsa irrigation project. The study employed both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected by interviewing 80 farmers, key informant interviews and observation of the project area while secondary data were collected from different agencies of Ethiopia. For this study Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model was used to model the current situation of irrigation water demand and also to create scenario for future irrigation water demand. The model was set up for a current account year in 2015 and last year of scenarios in 2040 based on the available data. Then the irrigation water demand of the project area was modeled while giving consideration for existing and planned developments in the area. The result from the current situation of irrigation water demand indicated that the demand was satisfied fully and the unmet demand under the base year (2015) was zero. Additionally, irrigation expansion scenario was created and the result of this scenario indicates the increment of irrigation water demand as compared to the base year and the reference scenario. The study also revealed that furrow irrigation and plastic buckets were the main irrigation techniques employed by farmers in the study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 259 ◽  
pp. 107227
Yuxin Cao ◽  
Huanjie Cai ◽  
Shikun Sun ◽  
Xiaobo Gu ◽  
Qing Mu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 2173-2182
Sachin Metkari ◽  
Dinesh Rao ◽  
Kulvindersingh Banga

Background: Periapical extrusion of debris, irrigating solution and microorganism are the major contributing factors for flare-ups during root canal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of different types of instrumentation in combination with different irrigation methods on apical bacterial expulsion. Material and Methods: Three hundred and ten extracted human permanent teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, three hundred teeth were instrumented with three different instrumentations using two irrigation methods. The remaining ten teeth were used as negative and positive control groups, in which no inoculation was done and no instrumentation was carried out respectively. Three hundred teeth were equally divided in three groups (n = 100), in which instrumentation was performed using a protaper universal rotary file (group 1), WaveOne reciprocating file (group 2) and a flexiCON rotary file (group 3). In each group, 50 samples were irrigated with conventional needle irrigation, and 50 samples were irrigated with the endoVac irrigation method. During instrumentation, apically extruded bacteria were collected in an Eppendorf tube. Microbiological samples were taken from the Eppendorf tube and incubated for 24h, and colony-forming units were counted. The data collected were statistically analysed. Results: The group 2 showed highest bacterial extrusion using conventional irrigation while group 3 showed lowest using endovac irrigation system. Conclusion: FlexiCON rotary instrumentation with the endoVac irrigation system produced significantly less bacterial extrusion than the other techniques.

itsrj ◽  
2021 ◽  
Alex P. Bach ◽  
Dale J. Bremer ◽  
Cathie C. Lavis ◽  
Steven J. Keeley

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0-0
Esma Sarıçam ◽  
Selen İnce Yusufoğlu ◽  
Meltem Küçük ◽  
Ferhat Geneci ◽  
Mert Ocak ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 939 (1) ◽  
pp. 012050
N M Ilkhamov ◽  
I G Kurbanov ◽  
J Kh Aliev ◽  
S E Ganiev ◽  
Ch V Toshpulatov

Abstract Reducing water consumption in crop irrigation in the world agriculture, studying soil moisture and water consumption by different irrigation methods, improving soil agrophysical properties and increasing productivity, as well as increasing the productivity of vegetable crops by various irrigation methods and improving phytosanitary conditions (weed and pest density, disease). Extensive research is being conducted to assess the level of one of the most pressing issues in agriculture is the development, improvement and widespread introduction of cost-effective irrigation methods in the spring and summer planting and care of vegetable crops in conditions of water scarcity.

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