vulnerability index
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-230
Author(s):  
Erik Febriarta ◽  
Muh Aris Marfai ◽  
Dhandhun Wacano ◽  
Ajeng Larasati ◽  
Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron

Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.


Author(s):  
ESMAEIL SHOJA ◽  
MOHAMMAD HASSAN CHERAGHALI ◽  
ALIREZA REZGHI ROSTAMI ◽  
ALIREZA DERAKHSHANI

Resilience as a counterpoint to vulnerability can reduce the vulnerability of various natural, man-made, and technological threats in complex technical systems. The present study was designed and conducted with the aim of comparative assessment of the vulnerability of a gas supply network to natural and technological threats. This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was carried out in Tehran metropolis gas supply network including town board stations, gas supply, and distribution networks in 2019-2020. The study was based on the vulnerability analysis method including three factors of likelihood, severity of consequences, and the degree of preparedness for threats. Comparative vulnerability assessment in these three sections of the gas supply network was performed using IBM SPSS software v. 23.0. Out of eleven identified hazardous elements, the vulnerability index for three hazardous elements was estimated as a weak level threat; four hazardous elements as a medium level threat and the vulnerability index for four hazards were evaluated as a severe threat. The results of comparative vulnerability assessment based on three parts of gas supply network showed that the highest vulnerabilities related to the gas distribution network (133.66±24.63), gas supply network (115.0±35.35), and town board stations (79.49±68.51. In addition, the results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the vulnerability difference in these three sections was not significant (p>0.05). The findings of the comparative assessment of vulnerability between   different parts of the gas supply network including town board stations (TBS), gas supply and distribution network indicated that the resilience of these parts is relatively low and requires special attention in order to reduce vulnerability in Tehran metropolis gas supply network.


Author(s):  
Tarun Thakur ◽  
JOYSTU DUTTA ◽  
Arvind Bijalwan ◽  
S Swamy

The present study attempts to understand land use dynamics in an area subjected to opencast and underground coal mining for the last few decades in Kotma Coalmines of Anuppur district in Madhya Pradesh, India through geospatial techniques. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change detection analysis was performed digitally classifying Landsat 5 (2001) as well as Landsat 8 (2020) satellite data using maximum likelihood algorithm. Results revealed that area under Dense native vegetation decreased drastically (13.74 sq. km) with the gradual and consistent expansion in the activities of coal mines which showed the highest increase in area over time (15.84 sq. km). Bivariate regression analysis showed the positive empirical relationships between vegetation indices and soil physico-chemical parameters. Studies suggested soil and vegetation is degraded over the large mining areas consistently over a long time period. Despite the continuous reforestation activities on mined areas, the decline area under dense vegetation and sparse vegetation over the twenty-year time-scale indicates that the reclamation activities are still in its’ infancy. Land Degradation Vulnerability Index (LDVI) map was generated to understand the extent of decadal land degradation trends and it shows that 8.60 % of the area is highly vulnerable to degradation. The LDI inputs will help the planners to develop alternate strategies to tackle vulnerability zones for safe mining. Monthly estimation of various meteorological parameters was also recorded to generate heat plots for the period 2001-2020. The study concludes that monitoring and assessment of fragile ecosystems are indispensable for holistic environmental management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 819
Author(s):  
Antonia Ilabaca ◽  
Germán Paredes-Belmar ◽  
Pamela P. Alvarez

In this paper, we introduce, model, and solve a clustered resource allocation and routing problem for humanitarian aid distribution in the event of an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. First, for the preparedness stage, we build a set of clusters to identify, classify, sort, focus, and prioritize the aid distribution. The clusters are built with k-means method and a modified version of the capacitated p-median model. Each cluster has a set of beneficiaries and candidate delivery aid points. Second, vehicle routes are strategically determined to visit the clusters for the response stage. A mixed integer linear programming model is presented to determine efficient vehicle routes, minimizing the aid distribution times. A vulnerability index is added to our model to prioritize aid distribution. A case study is solved for the city of Iquique, Chile.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdullah Al Mamun ◽  
A R M Towfiqul Islam ◽  
GM Monirul Alam ◽  
Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker ◽  
Michael Odei Erdiaw-Kwasie ◽  
...  

Abstract Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the world. In general, Charland (Riverine Island) communities are frequently affected by floods, riverbank erosion, and other climatic hazards, which cause many to lose their sources of livelihoods and properties and making them more vulnerable. Using survey data of 262 rural households, this study investigates the extent of livelihood vulnerability to climate change and natural hazards of the Charland communities by applying the climate change vulnerability index (CVI) (i.e. UN-IPCC vulnerability framework) and the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) to develop context-specific interventions for building climate and livelihood resilience. The two approaches of vulnerability assessment were modified to incorporate local contexts and indigenous knowledge into 41 sub-components. The result shows that LVI and CVI values are different between Charland communities. The LVI index shows that households in Char Jotindro-Narayan (0.148) are more vulnerable than Char Kulaghat (0.139). The CVI values for Char Jotindro-Narayan (0.633) are slightly lower than for Char Kulaghat (0.639). The major vulnerability factors were identified as the social networks, food self-sufficiency, natural disasters, and climatic variability. The study also indicates that flood, riverbank erosion, unemployment, and access to communication, market, and basic service opportunities are the major biophysical and socioeconomic factors determining livelihood vulnerability. The context-specific sustainable policies and development initiatives are required to improve the adaptive capacity of Charland communities across Bangladesh and thereby building their climate and livelihood resilience.


Author(s):  
Jinyu Shen ◽  
Wei Duan ◽  
Yuqi Wang ◽  
Yijing Zhang

Climate change disproportionately affects natural resource-dependent communities in the ecologically vulnerable regions of western China. This study used the household livelihood vulnerability index under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (HLV-IPCC) to assess vulnerability. Data were collected from 823 households in Ningxia, Gansu, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces, these being ecologically vulnerable regions in China. With a composite HLVI-IPCC and multiple regression model, the factors that affect households’ adaptive capability to HLVI-IPCC was estimated. Results indicate that Ningxia is the most vulnerable community, while Guangxi is the least vulnerable community across all indices. Moreover, Gansu has the heaviest sensitivity and exposure to climate change, whereas Ningxia has the highest adaptive capability to climate change. In addition, the age of household head and distance of the home to the town center had significant negative impacts on households’ adaptive capacity to HLVI-IPCC. The results also suggest that the HLVI assessment can provide an effective tool for local authorities to formulate prioritizing strategies with promoting climate-resilient development and increasing long-term adaptive capacity.


Author(s):  
Rashmi Kundapur ◽  
Anusha Rashmi ◽  
Sunhitha Velamala ◽  
Sumit Aggarwal ◽  
Kalpita Shringarpure ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective The primary objective of the study was to compare the challenges in implementing various COVID-19-related public health strategies and activities between the selected high health index and low health index states. The secondary objective was to identify the differently managed mechanisms adopted by the health-care delivery system across the states to maintain their functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Setting Eight states were divided into two groups; based on their health index and vulnerability index ranking—Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka in top four (Group 1) and Delhi, Tripura, Rajasthan, and Orissa in bottom four states (Group 2). Results There was lack of private sector involvement in both the groups of the states, more so in Group 2. Although transport-related issues were similar in both groups, lack of provision of vehicles for transport for carrying out various COVID and non-COVID activities seemed to be more prominent in Group 2. More obstacles related to infrastructure were observed in Group 1 states. In terms of innovations, commonalities lay in convergence of multiple departments for monitoring, contact tracing, essential supplies, and transportation. Both groups managed routine health services and fund allocation with nearly equal vigour. Major challenges faced were related to human resource, policy management, transportation, routine health services, data management, and infrastructure. HR-related challenges in top four states included confusion due to frequent change in guidelines, unclear micro-containment, and testing guidelines. Discharge guidelines and SOPs related to home isolation of slum dwellers, inter-departmental cooperation and coordination issues faced in greater proportion in top four states; issues with fund allocation for local needs were faced by the Group 2 states. Innovations implemented to meet hurdles faced during the pandemic could be categorized under heads of ‘human resource’, ‘community actions’, ‘policy management’, ‘inter-departmental coordination’, ‘use of technology and media’, and ‘fund allocations’. There was private–public partnership; use of other human resource for health-care delivery; use of technology for health-care delivery was seen in all states but more so in Group 1 states. Conclusion States with higher health index and lower vulnerability index, i.e., Group 1 states faced fewer challenges than those in Group 2. Innovative measures taken at local level to tackle problems posed by the pandemic were unique to the situations presented to them and helped control the disease as effectively as they could.


2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Caroline Ribeiro de Sousa ◽  
Janaína Fonseca Victor Coutinho ◽  
João Bastos Freire Neto ◽  
Rachel Gabriel Bastos Barbosa ◽  
Marília Braga Marques ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT Objectives: to assess factors associated with vulnerability and fragility in the elderly. Methods: crosssectional study with 384 elderly people in Fortaleza, Ceará. The Vulnerable Elders Survey and Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index - 20 were used. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for associations. In the analysis of the combined influence of risk factors, the stepwise logistic regression and multinomial regression methods were adopted. Results: 251 (65.4%) non-vulnerable and 133 (34.6%) vulnerable elders. From the vulnerable elders analyzed, 42 (30.9%) are at high risk for frailty. Factors associated with vulnerability: age, gender, presence of comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis and use of polypharmacy. There is a 30% increase in the chance of vulnerability for each additional drug. Physical activity reduces the chance of vulnerability by 60%. Factors associated with frailty: educational level; self-perception of health; comorbidities; polypharmacy. Conclusions: it is important to pay attention to the presence of arterial hypertension, osteoporosis, polypharmacy, and encourage the practice of physical activity.


2022 ◽  
pp. 930-951
Author(s):  
Ahmed Karmaoui ◽  
Siham Zerouali

Several countries are associated with the long-term ecological research (LTER) program, while others are in the process of joining the network. In Morocco, there is an urgent need to be a member of this network because the diversity of challenges associated with the various ecosystems requires multidisciplinary long-term studies. The chapter discusses this need by assessing the environmental vulnerability of Morocco basing on data from the environmental vulnerability index profile. Ecosystem change and vulnerability were investigated at the sites within the LTER program by exploring the criteria of the selected sites. The driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, responses framework would be a useful approach to study and explain the ecological changes of each selected site. The chapter highlights the purpose, significance, the mission, objectives, and the international cooperation of the proposed LTER network called Mo-LTER.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1592-1610
Author(s):  
Abdelkrim Ben Salem ◽  
Souad Ben Salem ◽  
Kholoud Kahime ◽  
Mohammed Messouli ◽  
Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

Moroccan ecosystems are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, run-off processes, and water availability). The chapter describes the strategy for achieving collaboration between natural and social scientists, stakeholders, decision makers, and other societal groups in order to carry out an integrated assessment of climate change in the 12 Moroccan regions, with an emphasis on vulnerability and adaptation, and evaluate the vulnerability of human population to climate change applying the socioeconomic vulnerability index (SeVI) that measures socioeconomic vulnerability by regions. Result suggest that three southern and one north region are relatively more vulnerable, which are the most exposed to natural hazard. Furthermore, significant adaptive capacity scores are recorded in in the remaining regions, and average sensitivity for all. Therefore, societies and economies at all levels and on every region have to prepare for and adapt to impacts of climate change.


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