immune related genes
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2022 ◽  
Yu Sun ◽  
Jun Zhao

Abstract Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. The mechanism is not fully elucidated and the therapeutic effect is also unsatisfactory. In our study, we aim to find new target gene in pan-cancer.Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was screened out in various types of cancers from GEO database. The expression of DEG (TCEAL2) in tumor cell lines, normal tissues and tumor tissues was calculated. Then the clinical characteristics, DNA methylation, tumor infiltration and gene enrichment of TCEAL2 was studied. Results: TCEAL2 expressions were down-regulated in most cancers. Its expression and methylation were positively or negatively associated with prognosis in different cancers. The tumor infiltration results revealed that TCEAL2 was significantly related with many immune cells especially NK cells and immune-related genes in majority cancers. Furthermore, tau protein and tubulin binding were involved in the molecular function mechanisms of TCEAL2. Conclusion: TCEAL2 may be a novel prognostic marker in different cancers and may affect tumor through immune infiltration.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 875
Pontus Öhlund ◽  
Nicolas Delhomme ◽  
Juliette Hayer ◽  
Jenny C. Hesson ◽  
Anne-Lie Blomström

Understanding the flavivirus infection process in mosquito hosts is important and fundamental in the search for novel control strategies that target the mosquitoes’ ability to carry and transmit pathogenic arboviruses. A group of viruses known as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) has been shown to interfere with the infection and replication of a secondary arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and mosquito-derived cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this interference are unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we infected the Aedes albopictus cell line U4.4 with either the West Nile virus (WNV), the insect-specific Lammi virus (LamV) or an infection scheme whereby cells were pre-infected with LamV 24 h prior to WNV challenge. The qPCR analysis showed that the dual-infected U4.4 cells had a reduced number of WNV RNA copies compared to WNV-only infected cells. The transcriptome profiles of the different infection groups showed a variety of genes with altered expression. WNV-infected cells had an up-regulation of a broad range of immune-related genes, while in LamV-infected cells, many genes related to stress, such as different heat-shock proteins, were up-regulated. The transcriptome profile of the dual-infected cells was a mix of up- and down-regulated genes triggered by both viruses. Furthermore, we observed an up-regulation of signal peptidase complex (SPC) proteins in all infection groups. These SPC proteins have shown importance for flavivirus assembly and secretion and could be potential targets for gene modification in strategies for the interruption of flavivirus transmission by mosquitoes.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Minmeng Zhao ◽  
Kang Wen ◽  
Xiang Fan ◽  
Qingyun Sun ◽  
Diego Jauregui ◽  

OTU deubiquitinase 7A (OTUD7A) can suppress inflammation signaling pathways, but it is unclear whether the gene can inhibit inflammation in goose fatty liver. In order to investigate the functions of OTUD7A and identify the genes and pathways subjected to the regulation of OTUD7A in the formation of goose fatty liver, we conducted transcriptomic analysis of cells, which revealed several genes related to inflammation and immunity that were significantly differentially expressed after OTUD7A overexpression. Moreover, the expression of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 8 (TNFSF8), sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein 9 (SAMD9), radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing protein 2 (RSAD2), interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx1 (MX1), and interferon-induced guanylate binding protein 1-like (GBP1) was inhibited by OTUD7A overexpression but induced by OTUD7A knockdown with small interfering RNA in goose hepatocytes. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IFIT5, TNFSF8, SAMD9, RSAD2, MX1, and GBP1 was downregulated, whereas OTUD7A expression was upregulated in goose fatty liver after 12 days of overfeeding. In contrast, the expression patterns of these genes showed nearly the opposite trend after 24 days of overfeeding. Taken together, these findings indicate that OTUD7A regulates the expression of inflammation- and immune-related genes in the development of goose fatty liver.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12680
Peng Wang ◽  
Zexin Zhang ◽  
Bin Yin ◽  
Jiayuan Li ◽  
Cheng Xialin ◽  

Background Burn patients are prone to infection as well as immunosuppression, which is a significant cause of death. Currently, there is a lack of prognostic biomarkers for immunosuppression in burn patients. This study was conducted to identify immune-related genes that are prognosis biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential targets for immunotherapy. Methods We downloaded the gene expression profiles and clinical data of 213 burn patients and 79 healthy samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Immune infiltration analysis was used to identify the proportion of circulating immune cells. Functional enrichment analyses were carried out to identify immune-related genes that were used to build miRNA-mRNA networks to screen key genes. Next, we carried out correlation analysis between immune cells and key genes that were then used to construct logistic regression models in GSE77791 and were validated in GSE19743. Finally, we determined the expression of key genes in burn patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results A total of 745 differently expressed genes were screened out: 299 were up-regulated and 446 were down-regulated. The number of Th-cells (CD4+) decreased while neutrophils increased in burn patients. The enrichment analysis showed that down-regulated genes were enriched in the T-cell activation pathway, while up-regulated genes were enriched in neutrophil activation response in burn patients. We screened out key genes (NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4) that could be regulated by miRNA. The expression of key genes was related to the proportion of Th-cells (CD4+) and survival, and was an excellent predictor of prognosis in burns with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945. Finally, we determined that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were down-regulated in burn patients. Conclusion We found that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were likely prognostic biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential immunotherapeutic targets to convert Th-cell dysfunction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Peiguo Yuan ◽  
Kiwamu Tanaka ◽  
B. W. Poovaiah

Calcium (Ca2+) signaling in plant cells is an essential and early event during plant-microbe interactions. The recognition of microbe-derived molecules activates Ca2+ channels or Ca2+ pumps that trigger a transient increase in Ca2+ in the cytoplasm. The Ca2+ binding proteins (such as CBL, CPK, CaM, and CML), known as Ca2+ sensors, relay the Ca2+ signal into down-stream signaling events, e.g., activating transcription factors in the nucleus. For example, CaM and CML decode the Ca2+ signals to the CaM/CML-binding protein, especially CaM-binding transcription factors (AtSRs/CAMTAs), to induce the expressions of immune-related genes. In this review, we discuss the recent breakthroughs in down-stream Ca2+ signaling as a dynamic process, subjected to continuous variation and gradual change. AtSR1/CAMTA3 is a CaM-mediated transcription factor that represses plant immunity in non-stressful environments. Stress-triggered Ca2+ spikes impact the Ca2+-CaM-AtSR1 complex to control plant immune response. We also discuss other regulatory mechanisms in which Ca2+ signaling activates CPKs and MAPKs cascades followed by regulating the function of AtSR1 by changing its stability, phosphorylation status, and subcellular localization during plant defense.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chaoqun Xing ◽  
Huiming Yin ◽  
Zhi-Yong Yao ◽  
Xiao-Liang Xing

Cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC) are among the most common malignancies of the female genital tract. Ferroptosis and immunity regulate each other and play important roles in the progression of CESC. The present study aimed to screen ferroptosis- and immune-related differentially expressed genes (FI-DEGs) to identify suitable prognostic signatures for patients with CESC. We downloaded the RNAseq count data and corresponding clinical information of CESC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas database; obtained recognized ferroptosis- and immune-related genes from the FerrDb and ImmPort databases, respectively; and screened for suitable prognostic signatures using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We identified eight FI-DEGs (CALCRL, CHIT1, DES, DUOX1, FLT1, HELLS, SCD, and SDC1) that were independently correlated with the overall survival of patients with CESC. The prediction model constructed using these eight FI-DEGs was also independently correlated with overall survival. Both the sensitivity and specificity of the prediction model constructed using these eight signatures were over 60%. The comprehensive index of ferroptosis and immune status was significantly correlated with the immunity of patients with CESC. In conclusion, the risk assessment model constructed with these eight FI-DEGs predicted the CESC outcomes. Therefore, these eight FI-DEGs could serve as prognostic signatures for CESC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Suthinee Soponpong ◽  
Piti Amparyup ◽  
Taro Kawai ◽  
Anchalee Tassanakajon

Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors found in both vertebrates and invertebrates that were recently identified and found to play an important role in antiviral immunity in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which P. monodon IRF (PmIRF) regulates the immune-related genes downstream of the cytosolic DNA sensing pathway. Depletion of PmIRF by double-stranded RNA-mediated gene silencing significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of the IFN-like factors PmVago1, PmVago4, and PmVago5 and antilipopolysaccharide factor 6 (ALFPm6) in shrimp. In human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells transfected with PmIRF or co-transfected with DEAD-box polypeptide (PmDDX41) and simulator of IFN genes (PmSTING) expression plasmids, the promoter activity of IFN-β, nuclear factor (NF-κB), and ALFPm6 was synergistically enhanced following stimulation with the nucleic acid mimics deoxyadenylic–deoxythymidylic acid sodium salt [poly(dA:dT)] and high molecular weight (HMW) polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. Both nucleic acid mimics also significantly induced PmSTING, PmIRF, and ALFPm6 gene expression. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that PmIRF interacted with PmSTING in cells stimulated with poly(dA:dT). PmSTING, PmIRF, and PmDDX41 were localized in the cytoplasm of unstimulated HEK293T cells and PmIRF and PmDDX41 were translocated to the nucleus upon stimulation with the nucleic acid mimics while PmSTING remained in the cytoplasm. These results indicate that PmIRF transduces the pathogen signal via the PmDDX41–PmSTING DNA sensing pathway to induce downstream production of interferon-like molecules and antimicrobial peptides.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
Guodong Mo ◽  
Bowen Hu ◽  
Qihong Zhang ◽  
Zhuohao Ruan ◽  
Wangyu Li ◽  

AbstractTo understand the differences in immune responses between early feathering (EF) and late feathering (LF) chickens after infection with avian leukosis virus, subgroup J (ALV-J), we monitored the levels of prolactin, growth hormone and the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM in the serum of LF and EF chickens for 8 weeks. Moreover, we analysed the expression of immune-related genes in the spleen and the expression of PRLR, SPEF2 and dPRLR in the immune organs and DF-1 cells by qRT–PCR. The results showed that ALV-J infection affected the expression of prolactin, growth hormone, IgG and IgM in the serum. Regardless of whether LF and EF chickens were infected with ALV-J, the serum levels of the two hormones and two immunoglobulins in EF chickens were higher than those in LF chickens (P  < 0.05). However, the expression of immune-related genes in the spleen of positive LF chickens was higher than that in the spleen of positive EF chickens. In the four immune organs, PRLR and SPEF2 expression was also higher in LF chickens than in EF chickens. Furthermore, the dPRLR expression of positive LF chickens was higher than that of negative LF chickens. After infection with ALV-J, the expression of PRLR in DF-1 cells significantly increased. In addition, overexpression of PRLR or dPRLR in DF-1 cells promoted replication of ALV-J. These results suggested that the susceptibility of LF chickens to ALV-J might be induced by dPRLR.

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