waste treatment
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2022 ◽  
Vol 156 ◽  
pp. 111975
Salman Soltanian ◽  
Soteris A. Kalogirou ◽  
Meisam Ranjbari ◽  
Hamid Amiri ◽  
Omid Mahian ◽  

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Gaoling Ma ◽  
Shujuan Li ◽  
Feilong Liu ◽  
Chen Zhang ◽  
Zhen Jia ◽  

Single-crystal SiC is a typical third-generation semiconductor power-device material because of its excellent electronic and thermal properties. An ultrasmooth surface with atomic surface roughness that is scratch free and subsurface damage (SSD) free is indispensable before its application. As the last process to reduce the surface roughness and remove surface defects, precision polishing of single-crystal SiC is essential. In this paper, precision polishing technologies for 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC, which are the most commonly used polytypes of single-crystal SiC, such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), photocatalytic chemical mechanical polishing (PCMP), plasma-assisted polishing (PAP), electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP), and catalyst-referred etching (CARE), were reviewed and compared with emphasis on the experimental setup, polishing mechanism, material removal rate (MRR), and surface roughness. An atomically smooth surface without SSD can be obtained by CMP, PCMP, PAP, and CARE for single-crystal SiC. However, their MRRs are meager, and the waste treatment after CMP is difficult and expensive. Moreover, PAP’s operation is poor due to the complex polishing system, plasma generation, and irradiation devices. A high MRR can be achieved by ECMP. In addition, it is an environmentally friendly precision polishing process for single-crystal SiC since the neutral salt solution is generally used as the electrolyte in ECMP. However, the formation of the egglike protrusions at the oxide/SiC interface during anodic oxidation would lead to a bigger surface roughness after ECMP than that after PAP is processed. The HF solution used in CARE was toxic, and Pt was particularly expensive. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted single-crystal SiC polishing and electrolyte plasma polishing (EPP) were discussed; furthermore, the research direction of further improving the surface quality and MRR of single-crystal SiC was prospected.

Environments ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 9
Sarah Kakadellis ◽  
Po-Heng Lee ◽  
Zoe M. Harris

Following the BBC’s Blue Planet II nature documentary series on marine ecosystems, plastic packaging has come under public fire, with consumers demanding greener alternatives. The biodegradable properties of some bioplastics have offered a potential solution to the global challenge of plastic pollution, while enabling the capture of food waste through anaerobic digestion as a circular and energy-positive waste treatment strategy. However, despite their increasing popularity, currently bioplastics are being tested in environments that do not reflect real-life waste management scenarios. Bioplastics find their most useful, meaningful and environmentally-sound application in food packaging—why is there so little interest in addressing their anaerobic co-digestion with food waste? Here, we provide a set of recommendations to ensure future studies on bioplastic end-of-life are fit for purpose. This perspective makes the link between the environmental sustainability of bioplastics and the role of food waste anaerobic digestion as we move towards an integrated food–energy–water–waste nexus. It shines light on a novel outlook in the field of bioplastic waste management while uncovering the complexity of a successful path forward. Ultimately, this research strives to ensure that the promotion of bioplastics within a circular economy framework is supported across waste collection and treatment stages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xieyan Chen ◽  
Zihao He ◽  
Jichen Zhao ◽  
Minze Liao ◽  
Yuan Xue ◽  

Biofloc technology (BFT) is one of the most promising technologies in global aquaculture for the purpose of improving water quality, waste treatment, and disease prevention in intensive aquaculture systems. However, characterization of the microbial species and antibiotic resistance potentially present in biofloc-based aquaculture environments is needed. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to comprehensively compare the bacterial communities in mariculture ponds of Penaeus monodon (P. monodon), by testing of water, biofloc, and intestine of P. monodon. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) cluster analysis showed that the nine samples tested divided into 45 phyla and 457 genera. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria in water, biofloc and prawn intestine. In biofloc and intestine, the Ruegeria (2.23–6.31%) genus represented the largest proportion of bacteria, with Marivita (14.01–20.94%) the largest group in water. Microbial functional annotation revealed that in all the samples, genes encoding metabolism were predominant. The antibiotic resistance gene annotation showed the highest absolute abundance of patB, adeF, OXA-243, and Brucella_suis_mprF from Proteobacteria. PatB (11.33–15.01%), adeF (15.79–18.16%), OXA-243 (35.65%), and Brucella_suis_mprF (10.03%) showed the highest absolute abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in water, biofloc, and intestines, respectively. These findings may greatly increase our understanding of the characteristics of the microbiota of shrimp biofloc-based aquaculture systems and the complex interactions among shrimp, ambient microflora, and environmental variables. It provides a reference basis for policy on breeding, environmental safety, and maintaining food safety in the production of P. monodon.

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