ABSTRACT: Annatto (Bixa orellana L.) is an arboreal species domesticated in Amazonia from its wild ancestor (B. orellana var. urucurana). Bixin extracted from its orthodox seeds is a natural dye widely used in the food industry. This study evaluated methods to overcome seed dormancy and determine the germination potential, comparing domesticated and wild annatto populations. Seeds from two domesticated-type populations and two families of a wild-type population, stored for two years after field collection, were submitted to five treatments to overcome dormancy: T1 - control; T2 - mechanical scarification (with sandpaper); T3 - mechanical scarification (with sandpaper) + immersion in water at 36 ºC overnight (12 hours); T4 - immersion in water at room temperature (23 ºC, on average) for 24 h; T5 - immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (95 - 98%) for 15 min + running water for 3 min. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were observed in the germination percentage of annatto seeds between wild and domesticated types, and among the treatments tested. Domesticated types showed higher germination percentage (10 - 58%) over all treatments when compared to the wild type (0 - 44%). The best treatments were those performed with mechanical scarification. Given the simplicity, we concluded that mechanical scarification with sandpaper is a good alternative to overcome dormancy of annatto seeds.
ABSTRACT: Splitting the whole dataset into training and testing subsets is a crucial part of optimizing models. This study evaluated the influence of the choice of the training subset in the construction of predictive models, as well as on their validation. For this purpose we assessed the Kennard-Stone (KS) and the Random Sampling (RS) methods in near-infrared spectroscopy data (NIR) and marker data SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). It is worth noting that in SNPs data, there is no knowledge of reports in the literature regarding the use of the KS method. For the construction and validation of the models, the partial least squares (PLS) estimation method and the Bayesian Lasso (BLASSO) proved to be more efficient for NIR data and for marker data SNPs, respectively. The evaluation of the predictive capacity of the models obtained after the data partition occurred through the correlation between the predicted and the observed values, and the corresponding square root of the mean squared error of prediction. For both datasets, results indicated that the results from KS and RS methods differ statistically from each other by the F test (P-value < 0.01). The KS method showed to be more efficient than RS in practically all repetitions. Also, KS method has the advantage of being easy and fast to be applied and also to select the same samples, which provides excellent benefits in the following analyses.
ABSTRACT: This study evaluated physical characteristics, chemical composition, content of vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and minerals in biribiri fruits (Averrhoa bilimbi) from the Middle Doce River region (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Titratable acidity was determined by volumetric neutralization, pH by direct potentiometry, soluble solids by refractometry, humidity by gravimetry, ash by calcination in muffle, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetric method and lipids using a Soxhlet extractor. Carotenoids and vitamin C were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detector. Fourteen minerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Biribiri showed high yield of edible portion (100%), low lipid, protein and carbohydrate content, and; consequently, low total energy value (25.36 kcal 100 g-1). The fruit also showed low dietary fiber content (0.62 g 100 g-1), total vitamin E (17.62 µg 100 g-1), total carotenoids (0.32 g 100 g-1), and high vitamin C, zinc, copper, iron content, manganese, molybdenum and chrome content. Regarding the heavy metals, the fruit showed no cadmium, and traces of aluminum and nickel. In conclusion, biribiri presented low energy value and expressive contents of dietary fibers, vitamin C, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, and copper.
ABSTRACT: This research valorized Pachira aquatica Aubl.’s fruit shells (PAS) through its energetic characterization and flash pyrolysis for biofuels or chemicals production. The characterization was performed through proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, higher heating value (HHV), hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content, thermogravimetric analysis and absorption spectra in the infrared region obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR). The analytical flash pyrolysis was performed at 500°C in a Py-5200 HP-R coupled to a gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The PAS biomass presents potential for thermochemical energy conversion processes due to its low moisture and ash content, 76.90% of volatile matter, bulk density of 252.6 kg/m3 and HHV of 16.24 MJ/kg. Flash pyrolysis products are mostly phenols or light organic acids derived from the decomposition of polysaccharides. Results confirmed the potential of PAS to produce bio-phenolics, such as 4-methoxyphenol which is an important active ingredient for skin depigmentation used in drugs and cosmetics, and as phenolic extract that can be used as a precursor to resins, applications that convert this forest waste into bio products for industry into a green circular economy.
ABSTRACT: The hematopoietic system changes during the pregnancy to carry fetal development and maternal needs. This study compared the hematological parameters between ewes with single and twin pregnancies during gestation, delivery, and postpartum. The experiment was conducted on 60 healthy pregnant Dorper ewes that were divided into two experimental groups: Group 1 (G1), with single pregnancies (n=30), and Group 2 (G2), with twin pregnancies (n=30). Blood samples were collected from all ewes at different times: immediately before fixed-time artificial insemination (AI); on day 30, 90, 120, 130, and 140 of pregnancy; immediately after delivery; and at 24h and 48h postpartum. Statistical analysis compared the two groups at different times (P<0.05). Mild, normocytic, and hypochromic anemia was detected in all ewes from AI time and throughout pregnancy from both groups, but did not prove to be of clinical relevance. In the peripartum stage (from the 140th day of pregnancy to 48h postpartum), the ewes with twin pregnancies (G2) exhibited higher erythrogram values and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio than did ewes with single pregnancies (G1). This indicated a greater hematopoietic adaptation in the body during the development of two fetuses. Except for the eosinophil numbers, all leukogram parameters were influenced by pregnancy in a similar way in both groups, and was characterized mainly by leukocytosis with neutrophilia during peripartum due to the high presence of endogenous cortisol at delivery. Thus, these findings showed that pregnancy was a stressful physiological event that increased the leukocyte count with a slight alteration in the erythrogram of Dorper ewes.
ABSTRACT: Temperature affects plant development therefore phyllochron has been used as a predictor for developmental events to define the time for agricultural managing practices. This study aims to evaluate changes in phyllochron and thermal sum required for flowering by oat genotypes developed at different decades at three temperature regimes; the effect of high temperature on phytomere development; and identify the development stage at the moment of meristem transition to reproductive stage. Three environments were obtained by sowing in the fall, in the spring, and under constant temperature (17oC), always at inductive photoperiod. Despite changes in nominal values small differences were found among genotypes’ phyllochron. Adding specific optimal and maximum temperatures into the growing degree days’ calculation demonstrated phyllochron stability among environments. Plant cycle length and thermal sum correlated with the number of developed phytomeres. UFRGS 078030-2 plants flowered earlier, had a small number of phytomeres, and greater tolerance to elevated temperatures than the other genotypes. More recent genotypes transit to reproductive stage at an earlier Haun stage than older ones.
ABSTRACT: Trypanosomosis in sheep is a hemoparasitic disease of worldwide interest due to its effects on the health of animals and the economic impact on producers, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma sp. In the present study, the occurrence of Trypanosoma sp. in sheep from the urban-rural area of the canton Salitre was determined, through an applied study with a qualitative descriptive prospective cross-sectional approach, carried out between October 1, 2019, and February 19, 2020. Blood samples were extracted from the jugular vein and analyzed by the blood smear method using the Giemsa and Diff-Quick staining techniques. Previously, in a first study realized between 2018 and 2019, 2 cases (2%) of Trypanosoma sp., 1 case of Babesia sp. (1%), and 4 cases of Anaplasma marginale (4%) were identified, but without the presence of symptoms of the disease. However, in this new research study, of 170 animals sampled from 5 herds and aged between 3 and 8 years, 34 (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma sp., 6 for Babesia sp. (3.52%) and 6 for A. marginale (3.52%) with coinfection between them. In this research, deteriorated clinical aspects and low hematological values were also determined in positive animals; besides of the total of positive cases, 25 presented symptoms of hemoparasitic disease, 3 sheep had abortions and 8 died. The results of this study showed that Trypanosoma sp. could already become an endemic parasitosis in sheep in the country, representing a serious problem of animal health.
ABSTRACT: In micropropagation, potassium nitrate (KNO3), an ACS reagent grade chemical, used in the preparation of growing mediums is expensive and its procurement depends on bureaucratic procedures, as it is controlled by the Brazilian Army. This research to assessed the effect of replacing the ACS KNO3 for a commercially available fertilizer (KNO3- based) on the micropropagation of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw. cv. Elephant Ear. Treatments used six different fertilizer concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g L-1) and a control consisting of 1.9 g L-1 KNO3, as shown in the MS salts. The survival, size and number of sprouts and the value of fresh biomass were evaluated. After seedling acclimation, we assessed the survival, number of sprouts, length, and number of roots, racket formation, average fresh biomass mass, macronutrient absorption and morphological changes of the seedlings. Explants inoculated with fertilizers at concentrations of 0.0; 2.0 and 2.5 g L-¹ did not grow. The response of explants at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.5 g L-1 of the fertilizer were the same as those developed in a KNO3 medium, and at a concentration of 1.0 g L-1, in all variables, the means were higher than those of the control medium. Therefore, it showed the feasibility of using fertilizers in the in vitro cultivation of the prickly pear cactus, which may remove bureaucratic barriers and reduce product costs by 99.12%.
ABSTRACT: This research was performed to ascertain the most suitable Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to quantify the degree of fraud in powdered milk through the addition of powdered whey via regular standard physicochemical analyses. In this study, an evaluation was done on 103 samples with different quantities of added whey powder to whole milk powder. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy the fat, cryoscopy, total solids, defatted dry extract, lactose, protein and casein were analyzed. The hyperbolic tangent transformation function was used with 45 topologies, and the Holdback and K-fold validation methods were tested. In the Holdback method, 75% of the database was employed for training, while 25% was used for validation. In the K-fold method, the database was categorized into five equal sized subsets, which alternated between training and validation. Of the two methods, the K-fold method was proven to have superior efficiency. Next, analysis was done on three models of multilayer perceptron networks with feedforward architecture. In Model 1, the input layer contained all the physicochemical analyses conducted, in model 2 the casein analysis was excluded, and in model 3 the routine analyses performed for dairy products was done (fat, defatted dry extract, cryoscopy and total solids). From Model 3 an ANN was derived which could satisfactorily predict fraud calculated from using the routine and standard analyses for dairy products, containing 64 nodes in the hidden layer, with R2 of 0.9935 and RMSE of 0.5779 for training, and R2 of 0.9964 and RMSE of 0.4358 for validation.
ABSTRACT: Known as an animal of multiple functions, the Equus asinus has always been used for various purposes, such as entertainment, horseback riding, means of transport, agricultural traction and dairy farming. Although, donkeys are associated with a vast heritage of social, cultural, economic and ecological importance, they have lost their importance in the activities of rural properties, both in the developed economies of European countries and in the Northeast region of Brazil. Specific studies of production systems aimed rational exploitation of the donkey species in Brazil do not exist. New perspectives for the use of donkey in the Brazilian semiarid region through the dairy industry has aroused scientific interest and the interest of investors. The donkey, allied to the low production costs and rusticity of the species, has the capacity to contribute to the economy with products of high biological value and therapeutic characteristics. Thus, this review provided a broad view of the donkey bred in the Northeast of Brazil, observing its characteristics and relevance for the region. The benefits of donkey milk and the need to promote the production and marketing of this milk in the dairy production chain will also be discussed.