VANET (Vehicle Ad-hoc Network) is an emerging technology in today’s intelligent transport system. In VANET, there are many moving nodes which are called the vehicle running on the road. They communicate with each other to provide the information to driver regarding the road condition, traffic, weather and parking. VANET is a kind of network where moving nodes talk with each other with the help of equipment. There are various other things which also make complete to VANET like OBU (onboard unit), RSU (Road Aside Unit) and CA (Certificate authority). In this paper, a new PSO enable multi-hop technique is proposed which helps in VANET to Select the best route and find the stable cluster head and remove the malicious node from the network to avoid the false messaging. The false can be occurred when there is the malicious node in a network. Clustering is a technique for making a group of the same type node. This proposed work is based on PSO enable clustering and its importance in VANET. While using this approach in VANET, it has increased the 20% packet delivery ratio.
The rapid development of connected devices and wireless communication has enabled several researchers to study wireless sensor networks and propose methods and algorithms to improve their performance. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are composed of several sensor nodes deployed to collect and transfer data to base station (BS). Sensor node is considered as the main element in this field, characterized by minimal capacities of storage, energy, and computing. In consequence of the important impact of the energy on network lifetime, several researches are interested to propose different mechanisms to minimize energy consumption. In this work, we propose a new enhancement of low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, named clustering location-based LEACH (CLOC-LEACH), which represents a continuity of our previous published work location-based LEACH (LOC-LEACH). The proposed protocol organizes sensor nodes into four regions, using clustering mechanism. In addition, an efficient concept is adopted to choose cluster head. CLOC-LEACH considers the energy as the principal metric to choose cluster heads and uses a gateway node to ensure the inter-cluster communication. The simulation with MATLAB shows that our contribution offers better performance than LEACH and LOC-LEACH, in terms of stability, energy consumption and network lifetime.
In this paper, elliptic curves Diffie Hellman-Rivest Shamir Adleman algorithm (ECDH-RSA) is a novel encryption method was proposed, which based on ECDH and RSA algorithm to secure transmitted data in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs). The proposed encryption is built under cheesboard clustering routing method (CCRM). The CCRM used to regulate energy consumption of the nodes. To achieve good scalability and performance by using limited powerful max-end sensors besides a large powerful of min-end sensors. ECDH is used for the sharing of public and private keys because of its ability to provide small key size high protection. The proposed authentication key is generated by merging it with the reference number of the node, and distance to its cluster head (CH). Decreasing the energy intake of CHs, RSA encryption allows CH to compile the tha data which encrypted with no need to decrypt it. The results of the simulation show that the approach could maximize the life of the network by nearly (47%, and 35.7%) compare by secure low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (Sec-LEACH and SL-LEACH) approches respectively.
In Wireless Sensor Networks the nodes have restricted battery power and the exhaustion of battery depends on various issues. In recent developments, various clustering protocols have been proposed to diminish the energy depletion of the node and prolong the network lifespan by reducing power consumption. However, each protocol is inappropriate for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. The efficiency of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks declines as changing the node heterogeneity. This paper reviews cluster head selection criteria of various clustering protocols for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks in terms of node heterogeneity and compares the performance of these protocols on several parameters like clustering technique, cluster head selection criteria, nodes lifetime, energy efficiency under two-level and three-level heterogeneous wireless sensor networks protocols Stable Election Protocol (SEP), Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (ZSEP), Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC), A Direct Transmission And Residual Energy Based Stable Election Protocol (DTRE-SEP), Developed Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DDEEC), Zone-Based Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol (ZBHCP), Enhanced Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (EDEEC), Threshold Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (TDEEC), Enhanced Stable Election Protocol (SEP-E), and Threshold Stable Election Protocol (TSEP). The comparison has shown that the TDEEC has very effective results over other over two-level and three-level heterogeneous wireless sensor networks protocols and has extended the unstable region significantly. From simulations, it can also be proved that adding node heterogeneity can significantly increase the network life.