network lifetime
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Suha Sahib Oleiwi ◽  
Ghassan N. Mohammed ◽  
Israa Al_Barazanchi

The wireless body area network (WBAN) has been proposed to offer a solution to the problem of population ageing, shortage in medical facilities and different chronic diseases. The development of this technology has been further fueled by the demand for real-time application for monitoring these cases in networks. The integrity of communication is constrained by the loss of packets during communication affecting the reliability of WBAN. Mitigating the loss of packets and ensuring the performance of the network is a challenging task that has sparked numerous studies over the years. The WBAN technology as a problem of reducing network lifetime; thus, in this paper, we utilize cooperative routing protocol (CRP) to improve package delivery via end-to-end latency and increase the length of the network lifetime. The end-to-end latency was used as a metric to determine the significance of CRP in WBAN routing protocols. The CRP increased the rate of transmission of packets to the sink and mitigate packet loss. The proposed solution has shown that the end-to-end delay in the WBAN is considerably reduced by applying the cooperative routing protocol. The CRP technique attained a delivery ratio of 0.8176 compared to 0.8118 when transmitting packets in WBAN.

Mohammed Réda El Ouadi ◽  
Abderrahim Hasbi

The rapid development of connected devices and wireless communication has enabled several researchers to study wireless sensor networks and propose methods and algorithms to improve their performance. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are composed of several sensor nodes deployed to collect and transfer data to base station (BS). Sensor node is considered as the main element in this field, characterized by minimal capacities of storage, energy, and computing. In consequence of the important impact of the energy on network lifetime, several researches are interested to propose different mechanisms to minimize energy consumption. In this work, we propose a new enhancement of low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, named clustering location-based LEACH (CLOC-LEACH), which represents a continuity of our previous published work location-based LEACH (LOC-LEACH). The proposed protocol organizes sensor nodes into four regions, using clustering mechanism. In addition, an efficient concept is adopted to choose cluster head. CLOC-LEACH considers the energy as the principal metric to choose cluster heads and uses a gateway node to ensure the inter-cluster communication. The simulation with MATLAB shows that our contribution offers better performance than LEACH and LOC-LEACH, in terms of stability, energy consumption and network lifetime.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 478
Xiao Yan ◽  
Cheng Huang ◽  
Jianyuan Gan ◽  
Xiaobei Wu

Energy efficiency is one of the critical challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs collect and transmit data through sensor nodes. However, the energy carried by the sensor nodes is limited. The sensor nodes need to save energy as much as possible to prolong the network lifetime. This paper proposes a game theory-based energy-efficient clustering algorithm (GEC) for wireless sensor networks, where each sensor node is regarded as a player in the game. According to the length of idle listening time in the active state, the sensor node can adopt favorable strategies for itself, and then decide whether to sleep or not. In order to avoid the selfish behavior of sensor nodes, a penalty mechanism is introduced to force the sensor nodes to adopt cooperative strategies in future operations. The simulation results show that the use of game theory can effectively save the energy consumption of the sensor network and increase the amount of network data transmission, so as to achieve the purpose of prolonging the network lifetime.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Abdulla Alateeq ◽  
Wael Elmedany ◽  
Nedal Ababneh ◽  
Kevin Curran

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the latest research related to secure routing protocols in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and propose a new approach that can achieve a higher security level compared to the existing one. One of the main security issues in WSNs is the security of routing protocols. A typical WSN consists of a large number of small size, low-power, low-cost sensor devices. These devices are very resource-constrained and usually use cheap short-range radios to communicate with each other in an ad hoc fashion thus, achieving security in these networks is a big challenge, which is open for research. Design/methodology/approach The route updates and data messages of the protocol are authenticated using Edwards-curves Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA). Routing protocols play an essential role in WSNs, they ensure the delivery of the sensed data from the remote sensor nodes to back-end systems via a data sink. Routing protocols depend on route updates received from neighboring nodes to determine the best path to the sink. Manipulating these updates by inserting rouge nodes in the network that advertise false updates can lead to a catastrophic impact on the compromised WSN performance. Findings As a result, a new secure energy-aware routing protocol (SEARP) is proposed, which uses security enhanced clustering algorithm and EdDSA to authenticate route advertisements and messages. A secure clustering algorithm is also used as part of the proposed protocol to conserve energy, prolong network lifetime and counteract wormhole attacks. Originality/value In this paper, a SEARP is proposed to address network layer security attacks in WSNs. A secure clustering algorithm is also used as part of the proposed protocol to conserve energy, prolong network lifetime and counteract wormhole attacks. A simulation has been carried out using Sensoria Simulator and the performance evaluation has been discussed.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Omar Ahmed ◽  
Min Hu ◽  
Fuji Ren

Software-Defined Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)s have gained significance in emergency healthcare applications for remote patients. Prioritization of healthcare data traffic has a high influence on the congestion and delay in the WBAN routing process. Currently, the energy constraints, packet loss, retransmission delay and increased sensor heat are pivotal research challenges in WBAN. These challenges also degrade the network lifetime and create serious issues for critical health data transmission. In this context, a Priority-based Energy-efficient, Delay and Temperature Aware Routing Algorithm (PEDTARA) is presented in this paper using a hybrid optimization algorithm of Multi-objective Genetic Chaotic Spider Monkey Optimization (MGCSMO). This proposed optimized routing algorithm is designed by incorporating the benefits of chaotic and genetic operators to the position updating function of enhanced Spider Monkey Optimization. For the prioritized routing process, initially, the patient data transmission in the WBAN is categorized into normal, on-demand and emergency data transmissions. Each category is ensured with efficient routing using the three different strategies of the suggested PEDTARA. PEDTARA performs optimal shortest path routing for normal data, energy-efficient emergency routing for high priority critical data and faster but priority verified routing for on-demand data. Thus, the proposed PEDTARA ensures energy-efficient, congestion-controlled and delay and temperature aware routing at any given period of health monitoring. Experiments were performed over a high-performance simulation scenario and the evaluation results showed that the proposed PEDTARA performs efficient routing better than the traditional approaches in terms of energy, temperature, delay, congestion and network lifetime.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Shuli Song

Wireless cooperative routing algorithm transmits the data collected in the target area to users, so that users can obtain monitoring information timely and accurately. In the traditional low-power adaptive clustering hierarchical routing protocol, the process of building clusters is random, the resources of nodes are not fully utilized, the node death speed is fast, the network life cycle is short, and the performance is not stable enough. In addition, the route maintenance process is cumbersome and will occupy a lot of bandwidth. In order to solve the problems of real-time transmission of digital media art communication data and network lifetime optimization, a wireless cooperative routing algorithm based on minimum energy consumption is proposed. The facts of transmission strength consumption, node residual strength, and minimal information transmission extension are analyzed, a new weight feature is proposed, and a multipath statistics routing scheme is developed by using the usage of the minimal strength consumption. All digital media art propagation sensor nodes transmit data to sink nodes along multiple transmission paths. Simulation results show that the algorithm can prolong the network lifetime, reduce and balance the node energy consumption, reduce the data transmission delay, reduce the energy consumption of wireless cooperative routing based on the minimum energy consumption by 64.5%, and increase the number of compressed images by 182%.

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