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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Arpita Biswas ◽  
Gourab K. Patro ◽  
Niloy Ganguly ◽  
Krishna P. Gummadi ◽  
Abhijnan Chakraborty

Many online platforms today (such as Amazon, Netflix, Spotify, LinkedIn, and AirBnB) can be thought of as two-sided markets with producers and customers of goods and services. Traditionally, recommendation services in these platforms have focused on maximizing customer satisfaction by tailoring the results according to the personalized preferences of individual customers. However, our investigation reinforces the fact that such customer-centric design of these services may lead to unfair distribution of exposure to the producers, which may adversely impact their well-being. However, a pure producer-centric design might become unfair to the customers. As more and more people are depending on such platforms to earn a living, it is important to ensure fairness to both producers and customers. In this work, by mapping a fair personalized recommendation problem to a constrained version of the problem of fairly allocating indivisible goods, we propose to provide fairness guarantees for both sides. Formally, our proposed FairRec algorithm guarantees Maxi-Min Share of exposure for the producers, and Envy-Free up to One Item fairness for the customers. Extensive evaluations over multiple real-world datasets show the effectiveness of FairRec in ensuring two-sided fairness while incurring a marginal loss in overall recommendation quality. Finally, we present a modification of FairRec (named as FairRecPlus ) that at the cost of additional computation time, improves the recommendation performance for the customers, while maintaining the same fairness guarantees.


Author(s):  
Ahmed Chater ◽  
Hicham Benradi ◽  
Abdelali Lasfar

<span>The purpose of determining the fundamental matrix (F) is to define the epipolar geometry and to relate two 2D images of the same scene or video series to find the 3D scenes. The problem we address in this work is the estimation of the localization error and the processing time. We start by comparing the following feature extraction techniques: Harris, features from accelerated segment test (FAST), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and speed-up robust features (SURF) with respect to the number of detected points and correct matches by different changes in images. Then, we merged the best chosen by the objective function, which groups the descriptors by different regions in order to calculate ‘F’. Then, we applied the standardized eight-point algorithm which also automatically eliminates the outliers to find the optimal solution ‘F’. The test of our optimization approach is applied on the real images with different scene variations. Our simulation results provided good results in terms of accuracy and the computation time of ‘F’ does not exceed 900 ms, as well as the projection error of maximum 1 pixel, regardless of the modification.</span>


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Bo Sun ◽  
Takeshi Takahashi ◽  
Tao Ban ◽  
Daisuke Inoue

To relieve the burden of security analysts, Android malware detection and its family classification need to be automated. There are many previous works focusing on using machine (or deep) learning technology to tackle these two important issues, but as the number of mobile applications has increased in recent years, developing a scalable and precise solution is a new challenge that needs to be addressed in the security field. Accordingly, in this article, we propose a novel approach that not only enhances the performance of both Android malware and its family classification, but also reduces the running time of the analysis process. Using large-scale datasets obtained from different sources, we demonstrate that our method is able to output a high F-measure of 99.71% with a low FPR of 0.37%. Meanwhile, the computation time for processing a 300K dataset is reduced to nearly 3.3 hours. In addition, in classification evaluation, we demonstrate that the F-measure, precision, and recall are 97.5%, 96.55%, 98.64%, respectively, when classifying 28 malware families. Finally, we compare our method with previous studies in both detection and classification evaluation. We observe that our method produces better performance in terms of its effectiveness and efficiency.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Laura Verde ◽  
Nadia Brancati ◽  
Giuseppe De Pietro ◽  
Maria Frucci ◽  
Giovanna Sannino

Edge Analytics and Artificial Intelligence are important features of the current smart connected living community. In a society where people, homes, cities, and workplaces are simultaneously connected through various devices, primarily through mobile devices, a considerable amount of data is exchanged, and the processing and storage of these data are laborious and difficult tasks. Edge Analytics allows the collection and analysis of such data on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, without involving any cloud-centred architecture that cannot guarantee real-time responsiveness. Meanwhile, Artificial Intelligence techniques can constitute a valid instrument to process data, limiting the computation time, and optimising decisional processes and predictions in several sectors, such as healthcare. Within this field, in this article, an approach able to evaluate the voice quality condition is proposed. A fully automatic algorithm, based on Deep Learning, classifies a voice as healthy or pathological by analysing spectrogram images extracted by means of the recording of vowel /a/, in compliance with the traditional medical protocol. A light Convolutional Neural Network is embedded in a mobile health application in order to provide an instrument capable of assessing voice disorders in a fast, easy, and portable way. Thus, a straightforward mobile device becomes a screening tool useful for the early diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of voice disorders. The proposed approach has been tested on a broad set of voice samples, not limited to the most common voice diseases but including all the pathologies present in three different databases achieving F1-scores, over the testing set, equal to 80%, 90%, and 73%. Although the proposed network consists of a reduced number of layers, the results are very competitive compared to those of other “cutting edge” approaches constructed using more complex neural networks, and compared to the classic deep neural networks, for example, VGG-16 and ResNet-50.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

This paper introduces a new approach of hybrid meta-heuristics based optimization technique for decreasing the computation time of the shortest paths algorithm. The problem of finding the shortest paths is a combinatorial optimization problem which has been well studied from various fields. The number of vehicles on the road has increased incredibly. Therefore, traffic management has become a major problem. We study the traffic network in large scale routing problems as a field of application. The meta-heuristic we propose introduces new hybrid genetic algorithm named IOGA. The problem consists of finding the k optimal paths that minimizes a metric such as distance, time, etc. Testing was performed using an exact algorithm and meta-heuristic algorithm on random generated network instances. Experimental analyses demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed approach in terms of runtime and quality of the result. Empirical results obtained show that the proposed algorithm outperforms some of the existing technique in term of the optimal solution in every generation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Mohamed Yassine Hayi ◽  
Zahira Chouiref ◽  
Hamouma Moumen

This paper introduces a new approach of hybrid meta-heuristics based optimization technique for decreasing the computation time of the shortest paths algorithm. The problem of finding the shortest paths is a combinatorial optimization problem which has been well studied from various fields. The number of vehicles on the road has increased incredibly. Therefore, traffic management has become a major problem. We study the traffic network in large scale routing problems as a field of application. The meta-heuristic we propose introduces new hybrid genetic algorithm named IOGA. The problem consists of finding the k optimal paths that minimizes a metric such as distance, time, etc. Testing was performed using an exact algorithm and meta-heuristic algorithm on random generated network instances. Experimental analyses demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed approach in terms of runtime and quality of the result. Empirical results obtained show that the proposed algorithm outperforms some of the existing technique in term of the optimal solution in every generation.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262499
Author(s):  
Negin Alisoltani ◽  
Mostafa Ameli ◽  
Mahdi Zargayouna ◽  
Ludovic Leclercq

Real-time ride-sharing has become popular in recent years. However, the underlying optimization problem for this service is highly complex. One of the most critical challenges when solving the problem is solution quality and computation time, especially in large-scale problems where the number of received requests is huge. In this paper, we rely on an exact solving method to ensure the quality of the solution, while using AI-based techniques to limit the number of requests that we feed to the solver. More precisely, we propose a clustering method based on a new shareability function to put the most shareable trips inside separate clusters. Previous studies only consider Spatio-temporal dependencies to do clustering on the mobility service requests, which is not efficient in finding the shareable trips. Here, we define the shareability function to consider all the different sharing states for each pair of trips. Each cluster is then managed with a proposed heuristic framework in order to solve the matching problem inside each cluster. As the method favors sharing, we present the number of sharing constraints to allow the service to choose the number of shared trips. To validate our proposal, we employ the proposed method on the network of Lyon city in France, with half-million requests in the morning peak from 6 to 10 AM. The results demonstrate that the algorithm can provide high-quality solutions in a short time for large-scale problems. The proposed clustering method can also be used for different mobility service problems such as car-sharing, bike-sharing, etc.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomson Mtonga ◽  
Keren K. Kaberere ◽  
George Kimani Irungu

<div>The installation of shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems leads to reduced branch power flows, branch currents, branch power losses and voltage drops. Consequently, this results in improved voltage profiles and voltage stability margins. However, for efficient attainment of the stated benefits, the shunt capacitors ought to be installed in an optimal manner, that is, optimally sized shunt capacitors need to be installed at the optimum buses of an electrical system. This article proposes a novel approach for optimizing the placement and sizing of shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems with a focus on minimizing the cost of active power losses and shunt capacitors’ purchase, installation, operation and maintenance. To reduce the search space, hence the computation time, the prroposed approach starts the search process by arranging the buses of the radial distribution system under consideration in pairs. Thereafter, these pairs influence each other to determine the optimum total number of buses to be compensated. The proposed approach was tested on the 34- and 85-bus radial distribution systems and when the simulation results were compared with those obtained by other approaches, it was established that the developed approach was a better option because it gave the least cost.</div>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Thomson Mtonga ◽  
Keren K. Kaberere ◽  
George Kimani Irungu

<div>The installation of shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems leads to reduced branch power flows, branch currents, branch power losses and voltage drops. Consequently, this results in improved voltage profiles and voltage stability margins. However, for efficient attainment of the stated benefits, the shunt capacitors ought to be installed in an optimal manner, that is, optimally sized shunt capacitors need to be installed at the optimum buses of an electrical system. This article proposes a novel approach for optimizing the placement and sizing of shunt capacitors in radial distribution systems with a focus on minimizing the cost of active power losses and shunt capacitors’ purchase, installation, operation and maintenance. To reduce the search space, hence the computation time, the prroposed approach starts the search process by arranging the buses of the radial distribution system under consideration in pairs. Thereafter, these pairs influence each other to determine the optimum total number of buses to be compensated. The proposed approach was tested on the 34- and 85-bus radial distribution systems and when the simulation results were compared with those obtained by other approaches, it was established that the developed approach was a better option because it gave the least cost.</div>


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maia H. Malonzo ◽  
Viivi Halla-aho ◽  
Mikko Konki ◽  
Riikka J. Lund ◽  
Harri Lähdesmäki

Abstract Background DNA methylation is commonly measured using bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq). The quality of a BS-seq library is measured by its bisulfite conversion efficiency. Libraries with low conversion rates are typically excluded from analysis resulting in reduced coverage and increased costs. Results We have developed a probabilistic method and software, LuxRep, that implements a general linear model and simultaneously accounts for technical replicates (libraries from the same biological sample) from different bisulfite-converted DNA libraries. Using simulations and actual DNA methylation data, we show that including technical replicates with low bisulfite conversion rates generates more accurate estimates of methylation levels and differentially methylated sites. Moreover, using variational inference speeds up computation time necessary for whole genome analysis. Conclusions In this work we show that taking into account technical replicates (i.e. libraries) of BS-seq data of varying bisulfite conversion rates, with their corresponding experimental parameters, improves methylation level estimation and differential methylation detection.


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