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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Jerry Chun-Wei Lin ◽  
Youcef Djenouri ◽  
Gautam Srivastava ◽  
Yuanfa Li ◽  
Philip S. Yu

High-utility sequential pattern mining (HUSPM) is a hot research topic in recent decades since it combines both sequential and utility properties to reveal more information and knowledge rather than the traditional frequent itemset mining or sequential pattern mining. Several works of HUSPM have been presented but most of them are based on main memory to speed up mining performance. However, this assumption is not realistic and not suitable in large-scale environments since in real industry, the size of the collected data is very huge and it is impossible to fit the data into the main memory of a single machine. In this article, we first develop a parallel and distributed three-stage MapReduce model for mining high-utility sequential patterns based on large-scale databases. Two properties are then developed to hold the correctness and completeness of the discovered patterns in the developed framework. In addition, two data structures called sidset and utility-linked list are utilized in the developed framework to accelerate the computation for mining the required patterns. From the results, we can observe that the designed model has good performance in large-scale datasets in terms of runtime, memory, efficiency of the number of distributed nodes, and scalability compared to the serial HUSP-Span approach.

Ahmed Chater ◽  
Hicham Benradi ◽  
Abdelali Lasfar

<span>The purpose of determining the fundamental matrix (F) is to define the epipolar geometry and to relate two 2D images of the same scene or video series to find the 3D scenes. The problem we address in this work is the estimation of the localization error and the processing time. We start by comparing the following feature extraction techniques: Harris, features from accelerated segment test (FAST), scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and speed-up robust features (SURF) with respect to the number of detected points and correct matches by different changes in images. Then, we merged the best chosen by the objective function, which groups the descriptors by different regions in order to calculate ‘F’. Then, we applied the standardized eight-point algorithm which also automatically eliminates the outliers to find the optimal solution ‘F’. The test of our optimization approach is applied on the real images with different scene variations. Our simulation results provided good results in terms of accuracy and the computation time of ‘F’ does not exceed 900 ms, as well as the projection error of maximum 1 pixel, regardless of the modification.</span>

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. V. S. Mota ◽  
G. L. Demolin-Leite ◽  
P. F. S. Guanabens ◽  
G. L. Teixeira ◽  
M. A. Soares ◽  

Abstract Fertilization with dehydrated sewage sludge can speed up the recovery process of degraded areas due to nutrients concentration, favoring the development of pioneer plants such as Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Beth (Fabales: Fabaceae) and the emergence of insects. This study aimed the evaluation of chewing, pollinating insects, predators, their ecological indices and relationships on A. auriculiformis plants fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (with and without dehydrated sewage sludge) and 24 repetitions. The prevalence of chewing insects Parasyphraea sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Nasutitermes sp. (Blattodea: Termitidae), and Tropidacris collaris (Stoll, 1813) (Orthoptera: Romaleidae), defoliation, and ecological indices of abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera were observed on fertilized A. auriculiformis. Acacia auriculiformis plants, with a superior number of branches/tree, revealed greater abundance of Coleoptera and Orthoptera, species richness of pollinating insects, defoliation, numbers of Parasyphraea sp. and T. collaris. The ones with larger leaves/branches displayed greater abundance of species richness of Coleoptera and Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Therefore, the use of A. auriculiformis plants, fertilized with dehydrated sewage sludge, is promising in the recovery of degraded areas due to the ecological indices increase of chewing and pollinators insects and spiders in the analyzed area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Danlu Liu ◽  
Yu Li ◽  
William Baskett ◽  
Dan Lin ◽  
Chi-Ren Shyu

Risk patterns are crucial in biomedical research and have served as an important factor in precision health and disease prevention. Despite recent development in parallel and high-performance computing, existing risk pattern mining methods still struggle with problems caused by large-scale datasets, such as redundant candidate generation, inability to discover long significant patterns, and prolonged post pattern filtering. In this article, we propose a novel dynamic tree structure, Risk Hierarchical Pattern Tree (RHPTree), and a top-down search method, RHPSearch, which are capable of efficiently analyzing a large volume of data and overcoming the limitations of previous works. The dynamic nature of the RHPTree avoids costly tree reconstruction for the iterative search process and dataset updates. We also introduce two specialized search methods, the extended target search (RHPSearch-TS) and the parallel search approach (RHPSearch-SD), to further speed up the retrieval of certain items of interest. Experiments on both UCI machine learning datasets and sampled datasets of the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI)—Simon’s Simplex Collection (SSC) datasets demonstrate that our method is not only faster but also more effective in identifying comprehensive long risk patterns than existing works. Moreover, the proposed new tree structure is generic and applicable to other pattern mining problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-45
Weiren Yu ◽  
Julie McCann ◽  
Chengyuan Zhang ◽  
Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu

SimRank is an attractive link-based similarity measure used in fertile fields of Web search and sociometry. However, the existing deterministic method by Kusumoto et al. [ 24 ] for retrieving SimRank does not always produce high-quality similarity results, as it fails to accurately obtain diagonal correction matrix  D . Moreover, SimRank has a “connectivity trait” problem: increasing the number of paths between a pair of nodes would decrease its similarity score. The best-known remedy, SimRank++ [ 1 ], cannot completely fix this problem, since its score would still be zero if there are no common in-neighbors between two nodes. In this article, we study fast high-quality link-based similarity search on billion-scale graphs. (1) We first devise a “varied- D ” method to accurately compute SimRank in linear memory. We also aggregate duplicate computations, which reduces the time of [ 24 ] from quadratic to linear in the number of iterations. (2) We propose a novel “cosine-based” SimRank model to circumvent the “connectivity trait” problem. (3) To substantially speed up the partial-pairs “cosine-based” SimRank search on large graphs, we devise an efficient dimensionality reduction algorithm, PSR # , with guaranteed accuracy. (4) We give mathematical insights to the semantic difference between SimRank and its variant, and correct an argument in [ 24 ] that “if D is replaced by a scaled identity matrix (1-Ɣ)I, their top-K rankings will not be affected much”. (5) We propose a novel method that can accurately convert from Li et al.  SimRank ~{S} to Jeh and Widom’s SimRank S . (6) We propose GSR # , a generalisation of our “cosine-based” SimRank model, to quantify pairwise similarities across two distinct graphs, unlike SimRank that would assess nodes across two graphs as completely dissimilar. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed approaches in terms of high search quality, computational efficiency, accuracy, and scalability on billion-edge graphs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Mikhail Asiatici ◽  
Paolo Ienne

Applications such as large-scale sparse linear algebra and graph analytics are challenging to accelerate on FPGAs due to the short irregular memory accesses, resulting in low cache hit rates. Nonblocking caches reduce the bandwidth required by misses by requesting each cache line only once, even when there are multiple misses corresponding to it. However, such reuse mechanism is traditionally implemented using an associative lookup. This limits the number of misses that are considered for reuse to a few tens, at most. In this article, we present an efficient pipeline that can process and store thousands of outstanding misses in cuckoo hash tables in on-chip SRAM with minimal stalls. This brings the same bandwidth advantage as a larger cache for a fraction of the area budget, because outstanding misses do not need a data array, which can significantly speed up irregular memory-bound latency-insensitive applications. In addition, we extend nonblocking caches to generate variable-length bursts to memory, which increases the bandwidth delivered by DRAMs and their controllers. The resulting miss-optimized memory system provides up to 25% speedup with 24× area reduction on 15 large sparse matrix-vector multiplication benchmarks evaluated on an embedded and a datacenter FPGA system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Yufei Chen ◽  
Tingtao Li ◽  
Qinming Zhang ◽  
Wei Mao ◽  
Nan Guan ◽  

Pathology image segmentation is an essential step in early detection and diagnosis for various diseases. Due to its complex nature, precise segmentation is not a trivial task. Recently, deep learning has been proved as an effective option for pathology image processing. However, its efficiency is highly restricted by inconsistent annotation quality. In this article, we propose an accurate and noise-tolerant segmentation approach to overcome the aforementioned issues. This approach consists of two main parts: a preprocessing module for data augmentation and a new neural network architecture, ANT-UNet. Experimental results demonstrate that, even on a noisy dataset, the proposed approach can achieve more accurate segmentation with 6% to 35% accuracy improvement versus other commonly used segmentation methods. In addition, the proposed architecture is hardware friendly, which can reduce the amount of parameters to one-tenth of the original and achieve 1.7× speed-up.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Ivan Kuric ◽  
Jaromír Klarák ◽  
Vladimír Bulej ◽  
Milan Sága ◽  
Matej Kandera ◽  

The article discusses the possibility of object detector usage in field of automated visual inspection for objects with specific parameters, specifically various types of defects occurring on the surface of a car tire. Due to the insufficient amount of input data, as well as the need to speed up the development process, the Transfer Learning principle was applied in a designed system. In this approach, the already pre-trained convolutional neural network AlexNet was used, subsequently modified in its last three layers, and again trained on a smaller sample of our own data. The detector used in the designed camera inspection system with the above architecture allowed us to achieve the accuracy and versatility needed to detect elements (defects) whose shape, dimensions and location change with each occurrence. The design of a test facility with the application of a 12-megapixel monochrome camera over the rotational table is briefly described, whose task is to ensure optimal conditions during the scanning process. The evaluation of the proposed control system with the quantification of the recognition capabilities in the individual defects is described at the end of the study. The implementation and verification of such an approach together with the proposed methodology of the visual inspection process of car tires to obtain better classification results for six different defect classes can be considered as the main novel feature of the presented research. Subsequent testing of the designed system on a selected batch of sample images (containing all six types of possible defect) proved the functionality of the entire system while the highest values of successful defect detection certainty were achieved from 85.15% to 99.34%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Jürgen Hofmann ◽  
Alexander Flisch ◽  
Robert Zboray

This article describes the implementation of an efficient and fast in-house computed tomography (CT) reconstruction framework. The implementation principles of this cone-beam CT reconstruction tool chain are described here. The article mainly covers the core part of CT reconstruction, the filtered backprojection and its speed up on GPU hardware. Methods and implementations of tools for artifact reduction such as ring artifacts, beam hardening, algorithms for the center of rotation determination and tilted rotation axis correction are presented. The framework allows the reconstruction of CT images of arbitrary data size. Strategies on data splitting and GPU kernel optimization techniques applied for the backprojection process are illustrated by a few examples.

Xiaomeng Zhang ◽  
Stefan Pirker ◽  
Mahdi Saeedipour

AbstractThe capillary interactions are prominent for a micro-sized particle at the steel—slag interface. In this study, the dynamics of a spherical particle interacting with the steel—slag interface is numerically investigated using the volume of fluid method in combination with the overset grid technique to account for particle motion. The simulations have shown the particle’s separation process at the interface and successfully captured the formation and continuous evolution of a meniscus in the course of particle motion. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of different physical parameters in the steel—slag—particle system is also conducted. The result indicates that the wettability of particle with the slag phase is the main factor affecting particle separation behavior (trapped at the interface or fully separated into slag). Higher interfacial tension of fluid interface and smaller particle size can speed up the particle motion but have less effect on the equilibrium position for particle staying at the interface. In comparison, particle density shows a minor influence when the motion is dominated by the capillary effect. By taking account of the effect of meniscus and capillary forces on a particle, this study provides a more accurate simulation of particle motion in the vicinity of the steel—slag interface and enables further investigation of more complex situations.

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