The main task of our study is to justify the primary directions of transformation of economic processes on the basis of digitalisation. Nowadays, the digitalisation of the economy in the global economic environment is considered a priority model of global innovation development. Institutional factors are particularly important in the conditions of transformation of economic processes on the basis of digitalisation. They form the fundamental parameters of the long-term functioning of economic systems. It is determined that the role of institutional factors in ensuring economic development is multifaceted as they affect its duration and quality. These factors can be divided into formal and informal. We have systematised the influence of formal and informal institutional factors on the transformation of economic processes. It is found that the inability of the Ukrainian institutional system to ensure effective economic development demonstrates the institutional traps. Negative manifestations of this system hinder the positive directions for the transformation of economic processes, modernisation of the economy, and competitiveness. It is justified that the transformation of management economic processes should be based on the implementation of the proposed system of principles, the use of which will identify and solve a set of problems of social development of the region, which meets the challenges of our time. To create an effective system of interaction between corporate and regional participants, it is necessary to link their goals, to harmonise them with the goals of socio-economic development of the region. This is where digitalisation can help. It is determined that in modern conditions, the problems of the digital sector affect the competitiveness of the economy, as the lag in obtaining and processing relevant data, the inability to use digital resources are accompanied by the loss of former market positions. From the standpoint of the theory of asymmetry of international trade, the digital dependence of one country on another leads to an increase in the gap in economic development between these countries. The rapid development of information and computer technologies and the active Internet penetration into all spheres of human life have led to the transformation of economic processes according to the level of digitalisation. The development and dissemination of key technologies underlying the digital economy have a decisive impact on the transformation of globalisation: they directly affect the production of goods and services, human resources, investment in human and physical capital, foreign direct investment, international technology transfer, industrial innovation. In essence, all this directly affects the efficiency of production, performance, competitiveness, and economic growth – from individual market participants to countries, regions, and the world economy as a whole.