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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Xiaoyu Ji ◽  
Yushi Cheng ◽  
Juchuan Zhang ◽  
Yuehan Chi ◽  
Wenyuan Xu ◽  
...  

With the widespread use of smart devices, device authentication has received much attention. One popular method for device authentication is to utilize internally measured device fingerprints, such as device ID, software or hardware-based characteristics. In this article, we propose DeMiCPU , a stimulation-response-based device fingerprinting technique that relies on externally measured information, i.e., magnetic induction (MI) signals emitted from the CPU module that consists of the CPU chip and its affiliated power-supply circuits. The key insight of DeMiCPU is that hardware discrepancies essentially exist among CPU modules and thus the corresponding MI signals make promising device fingerprints, which are difficult to be modified or mimicked. We design a stimulation and a discrepancy extraction scheme and evaluate them with 90 mobile devices, including 70 laptops (among which 30 are of totally identical CPU and operating system) and 20 smartphones. The results show that DeMiCPU can achieve 99.7% precision and recall on average, and 99.8% precision and recall for the 30 identical devices, with a fingerprinting time of 0.6~s. The performance can be further improved to 99.9% with multi-round fingerprinting. In addition, we implement a prototype of DeMiCPU docker, which can effectively reduce the requirement of test points and enlarge the fingerprinting area.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Laura Verde ◽  
Nadia Brancati ◽  
Giuseppe De Pietro ◽  
Maria Frucci ◽  
Giovanna Sannino

Edge Analytics and Artificial Intelligence are important features of the current smart connected living community. In a society where people, homes, cities, and workplaces are simultaneously connected through various devices, primarily through mobile devices, a considerable amount of data is exchanged, and the processing and storage of these data are laborious and difficult tasks. Edge Analytics allows the collection and analysis of such data on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, without involving any cloud-centred architecture that cannot guarantee real-time responsiveness. Meanwhile, Artificial Intelligence techniques can constitute a valid instrument to process data, limiting the computation time, and optimising decisional processes and predictions in several sectors, such as healthcare. Within this field, in this article, an approach able to evaluate the voice quality condition is proposed. A fully automatic algorithm, based on Deep Learning, classifies a voice as healthy or pathological by analysing spectrogram images extracted by means of the recording of vowel /a/, in compliance with the traditional medical protocol. A light Convolutional Neural Network is embedded in a mobile health application in order to provide an instrument capable of assessing voice disorders in a fast, easy, and portable way. Thus, a straightforward mobile device becomes a screening tool useful for the early diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of voice disorders. The proposed approach has been tested on a broad set of voice samples, not limited to the most common voice diseases but including all the pathologies present in three different databases achieving F1-scores, over the testing set, equal to 80%, 90%, and 73%. Although the proposed network consists of a reduced number of layers, the results are very competitive compared to those of other “cutting edge” approaches constructed using more complex neural networks, and compared to the classic deep neural networks, for example, VGG-16 and ResNet-50.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Author(s):  
Youjing Lu ◽  
Fan Wu ◽  
Qianyi Huang ◽  
Shaojie Tang ◽  
Linghe Kong ◽  
...  

To build a secure wireless networking system, it is essential that the cryptographic key is known only to the two (or more) communicating parties. Existing key extraction schemes put the devices into physical proximity and utilize the common inherent randomness between the devices to agree on a secret key, but they often rely on specialized hardware (e.g., the specific wireless NIC model) and have low bit rates. In this article, we seek a key extraction approach that only leverages off-the-shelf mobile devices, while achieving significantly higher key generation efficiency. The core idea of our approach is to exploit the fast varying inaudible acoustic channel as the common random source for key generation and wireless parallel communication for exchanging reconciliation information to improve the key generation rate. We have carefully studied and validated the feasibility of our approach through both theoretical analysis and a variety of measurements. We implement our approach on different mobile devices and conduct extensive experiments in different real scenarios. The experiment results show that our approach achieves high efficiency and satisfactory robustness. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, our approach improves the key generation rate by 38.46% and reduces the bit mismatch ratio by 42.34%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

The cost-effective and easy availability of handheld mobile devices and ubiquity of location acquisition services such as GPS and GSM networks has helped expedient logging and sharing of location histories of mobile users. This work aims to find semantic user similarity using their past travel histories. Application of the semantic similarity measure can be found in tourism-related recommender systems and information retrieval. The paper presents Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) based semantic user similarity measure using users' GPS logs. The similarity measure is applied and evaluated on the GPS dataset of 182 users collected from April 2007 to August 2012 by Microsoft's GeoLife project. The proposed similarity measure is compared with conventional similarity measures used in literature such as Jaccard, Dice, and Pearsons’ Correlation. The percentage improvement of EMD based approach over existing approaches in terms of average RMSE is 10.70%, and average MAE is 5.73%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Sunita Tiwari ◽  
Saroj Kaushik

The cost-effective and easy availability of handheld mobile devices and ubiquity of location acquisition services such as GPS and GSM networks has helped expedient logging and sharing of location histories of mobile users. This work aims to find semantic user similarity using their past travel histories. Application of the semantic similarity measure can be found in tourism-related recommender systems and information retrieval. The paper presents Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) based semantic user similarity measure using users' GPS logs. The similarity measure is applied and evaluated on the GPS dataset of 182 users collected from April 2007 to August 2012 by Microsoft's GeoLife project. The proposed similarity measure is compared with conventional similarity measures used in literature such as Jaccard, Dice, and Pearsons’ Correlation. The percentage improvement of EMD based approach over existing approaches in terms of average RMSE is 10.70%, and average MAE is 5.73%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Tu N. Nguyen ◽  
Sherali Zeadally

Conventional data collection methods that use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) suffer from disadvantages such as deployment location limitation, geographical distance, as well as high construction and deployment costs of WSNs. Recently, various efforts have been promoting mobile crowd-sensing (such as a community with people using mobile devices) as a way to collect data based on existing resources. A Mobile Crowd-Sensing System can be considered as a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), because it allows people with mobile devices to collect and supply data to CPSs’ centers. In practical mobile crowd-sensing applications, due to limited budgets for the different expenditure categories in the system, it is necessary to minimize the collection of redundant information to save more resources for the investor. We study the problem of selecting participants in Mobile Crowd-Sensing Systems without redundant information such that the number of users is minimized and the number of records (events) reported by users is maximized, also known as the Participant-Report-Incident Redundant Avoidance (PRIRA) problem. We propose a new approximation algorithm, called the Maximum-Participant-Report Algorithm (MPRA) to solve the PRIRA problem. Through rigorous theoretical analysis and experimentation, we demonstrate that our proposed method performs well within reasonable bounds of computational complexity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paula Delgado-Santos ◽  
Giuseppe Stragapede ◽  
Ruben Tolosana ◽  
Richard Guest ◽  
Farzin Deravi ◽  
...  

The number of mobile devices, such as smartphones and smartwatches, is relentlessly increasing to almost 6.8 billion by 2022, and along with it, the amount of personal and sensitive data captured by them. This survey overviews the state of the art of what personal and sensitive user attributes can be extracted from mobile device sensors, emphasising critical aspects such as demographics, health and body features, activity and behaviour recognition, etc. In addition, we review popular metrics in the literature to quantify the degree of privacy, and discuss powerful privacy methods to protect the sensitive data while preserving data utility for analysis. Finally, open research questions are presented for further advancements in the field.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Cheng Zhou ◽  
Dacong Ren ◽  
Xiangyan Zhang ◽  
Cungui Yu ◽  
Likai Ju

The devices used for human position detection in mechanical safety mainly include safety light curtain, safety laser scanner, safety pad, and vision system. However, these devices may be bypassed when used, and human or equipment cannot be distinguished. To solve this problem, a depth camera is proposed as a human position detection device in mechanical safety. The process of human position detection based on depth camera image information is given; it mainly includes image information acquisition, human presence detection, and distance measurement. Meanwhile, a human position detection method based on Intel RealSense depth camera and MobileNet-SSD algorithm is proposed and applied to robot safety protection. The result shows that the image information collected by the depth camera can detect the human position in real time, which can replace the existing mechanical safety human position detection device. At the same time, the depth camera can detect only human but not mobile devices and realize the separation and early warning of people and mobile devices.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Ashwag Albakri ◽  
Huda Fatima ◽  
Maram Mohammed ◽  
Aisha Ahmed ◽  
Aisha Ali ◽  
...  

With the presence of the Internet and the frequent use of mobile devices to send several transactions that involve personal and sensitive information, it becomes of great importance to consider the security aspects of mobile devices. And with the increasing use of mobile applications that are utilized for several purposes such as healthcare or banking, those applications have become an easy and attractive target for attackers who want to get access to mobile devices and obtain users’ sensitive information. Developing a secure application is very important; otherwise, attackers can easily exploit vulnerabilities in mobile applications which lead to serious security issues such as information leakage or injecting applications with malicious programs to access user data. In this paper, we survey the literature on application security on mobile devices, specifically mobile devices running on the Android platform, and exhibit security threats in the Android system. In addition, we study many reverse-engineering tools that are utilized to exploit vulnerabilities in applications. We demonstrate several reverse-engineering tools in terms of methodology, security holes that can be exploited, and how to use these tools to help in developing more secure applications.


Author(s):  
Matia Fazio ◽  
Christian Lombardo ◽  
Giuseppe Marino ◽  
Anand Marya ◽  
Pietro Messina ◽  
...  

An Android/iOS application for low-cost mobile devices to aid in dental diagnosis through questionnaire and photos is presented in this paper. The main purposes of our app lie in the ease of use even for nonexperienced users, in the limited hardware requirements that allow a wide diffusion, and in the possibility to modify the questionnaire for different pathologies. This tool was developed in about a month at the beginning of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and is still in use in Italy to allow support to patients without going to the hospital, if not strictly necessary.


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