damage model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. e00834
R. Bakhti ◽  
B. Benahmed ◽  
A. Laib ◽  
M.T. Alfach

2022 ◽  
Vol 133 ◽  
pp. 105951
Zhiyang Zhao ◽  
Renbo Song ◽  
Changhong Cai ◽  
Ke Guo

2022 ◽  
Vol 148 (2) ◽  
Dechun Lu ◽  
Fanping Meng ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  
Guosheng Wang ◽  
Xiuli Du

2022 ◽  
Vol 320 ◽  
pp. 126284
Tao He ◽  
Tongtao Wang ◽  
Dongzhou Xie ◽  
Junhua Liu ◽  
J.J.K. Daemen

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 654
Eliass El Alami ◽  
Fatima-Ezzahra Fekak ◽  
Luigi Garibaldi ◽  
Hassane Moustabchir ◽  
Ahmed Elkhalfi ◽  

The corrosion of rebars in reinforced concrete structures impacts their geometry (diameter and ribs) and mass, damages the concrete at the interface between the two materials, deteriorates the bond strength, and causes the cracking of the concrete cover. In the following study, a 2D numerical model of the pull-out test is presented in order to study the impact of corrosion on the bond strength. Several parameters are investigated: the embedment depth, the rebar’s diameter, and the width of the concrete cover. The model reproduces the slip of the rebar and the failure through the splitting of concrete. It integrates an interface between the two materials and a concrete damage model that simulate the deterioration of concrete in compression and tension. The results obtained are validated with experimental data from the literature. Moreover, a parametric study is carried out to determine the impact of the embedment depth, the diameter of the rebar, and the concrete cover on the bond strength. The present study confirms that a greater embedment depth increases the pulling load. The study also confirms that the rebar’s diameter impacts highly the loss of bond between the rebar and the concrete cover. Lastly, the final main result of this paper is that the width of the concrete cover slows the loss of bond strength between the two materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Wenyan Li ◽  
Yizhou Quan ◽  
Mingqian Huang ◽  
Wei Wei ◽  
Yilai Shu ◽  

The study of an adult mammalian auditory system, such as regeneration, has been hampered by the lack of an in vitro system in which hypotheses can be tested efficiently. This is primarily due to the fact that the adult inner ear is encased in the toughest bone of the body, whereas its removal leads to the death of the sensory epithelium in culture. We hypothesized that we could take advantage of the integral cochlear structure to maintain the overall inner ear architecture and improve sensory epithelium survival in culture. We showed that by culturing adult mouse cochlea with the (surrounding) bone intact, the supporting cells (SCs) survived and almost all hair cells (HCs) degenerated. To evaluate the utility of the explant culture system, we demonstrated that the overexpression of Atoh1, an HC fate-determining factor, is sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of adult SCs to HC-like cells (HCLCs). Transdifferentiation-derived HCLCs resemble developmentally young HCs and are able to attract adult ganglion neurites. Furthermore, using a damage model, we showed that degenerated adult ganglions respond to regenerated HCLCs by directional neurite outgrowth that leads to HCLC-neuron contacts, strongly supporting the intrinsic properties of the HCLCs in establishing HCLC-neuron connections. The adult whole cochlear explant culture is suitable for diverse studies of the adult inner ear including regeneration, HC-neuron pathways, and inner ear drug screening.

2022 ◽  
Urmila Jagtap ◽  
Sandeep Basu ◽  
Lavanya Lokhande ◽  
Nikhil Bharti ◽  
Chetana Sachidanandan

The use of many essential drugs is restricted due to their deleterious effects on the liver. Molecules that can prevent or protect the liver from drug induced liver injury (DILI) would be valuable in such situations. We used hepatocyte-specific expression of bacterial nitroreductase in zebrafish to cause temporally controlled liver damage. This transgenic line was used to run a whole organism based chemical screen in zebrafish larvae. In this screen we identified BML-257, a potent small molecule AKT inhibitor, that protected the liver against metronidazole-induced liver injury. BML-257 also showed potent prophylactic and pro-regenerative activity in this liver damage model. BML-257 also showed remarkable protective action in two independent toxicological models of liver injury caused by acetaminophen and Isoniazid. This suggests that BML-257 may have the potential to protect against multiple kinds of drug induced liver injury.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 319
Nadja Oneschkow ◽  
Tim Timmermann ◽  
Stefan Löhnert

A high-strength concrete and mortar subjected to compressive fatigue loading were comparatively investigated using experimental and computational techniques. The focus of the investigations was on the influence of the coarse aggregate in high-strength concrete. Accordingly, the fatigue behaviour was analysed experimentally using the macroscopic damage indicators strain, stiffness and acoustic emission hits. The results clearly show differences in the fatigue behaviour between the concrete and the mortar, especially at the lower stress level investigated. The basalt coarse aggregate here improves the fatigue behaviour of the concrete. Indication of a negative effect can be seen at the higher stress level. A finite element approach with a gradient-enhanced equivalent strain-based damage model combined with a fatigue model was used for the computational simulation of the fatigue behaviour. The damage model includes a differentiation between tension and compression. The fatigue model follows the assumption of the reduction in the material strength based on the accumulated gradient-enhanced equivalent strains. A random distribution of spherically shaped basalt aggregates following a given particle size distribution curve is used for the simulation of concrete. The comparison of the experimentally and computationally determined strain developments of the concrete and mortar shows very good agreement.

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