Objectives: Radiotherapy improves the survival rate of cancer patients, yet it also involves some inevitable complications. Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is one of the most serious complications, especially the radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, which is characterized by cardiac oxidative stress disorder and programmed cell death. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for RIHD; in addition, it cannot be reversed when it progresses. This study aims to explore the role and potential mechanism of microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) in RIHD.Methods: Mice were injected with miR-223-3p mimic, inhibitor, or their respective controls in the tail vein and received a single dose of 20 Gy whole-heart irradiation (WHI) for 16 weeks after 3 days to construct a RIHD mouse model. To inhibit adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) or phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), compound C (CompC) and AAV9-shPDE4D were used.Results: WHI treatment significantly inhibited the expression of miR-223-3p in the hearts; furthermore, the levels of miR-223-3p decreased in a radiation time-dependent manner. miR-223-3p mimic significantly relieved, while miR-223-3p inhibitor aggravated apoptosis, oxidative damage, and cardiac dysfunction in RIHD mice. In addition, we found that miR-223-3p mimic improves WHI-induced myocardial injury by activating AMPK and that the inhibition of AMPK by CompC completely blocks these protective effects of miR-223-3p mimic. Further studies found that miR-223-3p lowers the protein levels of PDE4D and inhibiting PDE4D by AAV9-shPDE4D blocks the WHI-induced myocardial injury mediated by miR-223-3p inhibitor.Conclusion: miR-223-3p ameliorates WHI-induced RIHD through anti-oxidant and anti-programmed cell death mechanisms via activating AMPK by PDE4D regulation. miR-223-3p mimic exhibits potential value in the treatment of RIHD.
Anthracycline antineoplastic agents such as doxorubicin are widely used and highly effective component of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and curative regimens for lymphomas, leukemias, and sarcomas. The primary dose-limiting adverse effect of anthracyclines is cardiotoxicity that typically manifests as cardiomyopathy and can progress to the potentially fatal clinical syndrome of heart failure. Decades of pre-clinical research have explicated the complex and multifaceted mechanisms of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. It is well-established that oxidative stress contributes to the pathobiology and recent work has elucidated important central roles for direct mitochondrial injury and iron overload. Here we focus instead on emerging aspects of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity that may have received less attention in other recent reviews: thrombosis, myocardial atrophy, and non-apoptotic programmed cell death.
AbstractThe widespread adoption of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of various cancer types, including metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which has long been associated with poor prognostic outcomes. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) that target and inhibit programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), have shown promising results in the treatment of patients with metastatic TNBC. However, while manipulating the immune system to induce antitumor response, ICIs can also lead to a unique set of immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), which differ from standard chemotherapy toxicities due to their immune-based origin. These toxicities require highly specific management, including guidance from multidisciplinary specialists. The primary treatment strategy against IRAEs is systemic corticosteroid use, but additional treatment approaches may also involve supportive care, additional immunosuppression, and concurrent treatment delay or discontinuation. Given the rising prevalence of ICI therapy, it is essential to educate clinicians on the presentation and management of these potentially life-threatening events so that they are identified early and treated appropriately. Using data from recent clinical trials, this review will focus on known IRAEs, particularly those seen in patients with breast cancer, and will summarize their prevalence, severity, and outcomes. We will discuss optimal strategies for early recognition and management, as well as approaches toward cautious retreatment following resolution of IRAEs.