Excessive neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is an important contributor to sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Recent reports indicate that platelets can induce neutrophil extracellular trap formation. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. Tph1 gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for peripheral 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) synthesis, was knocked out in mice to simulate peripheral 5-HT deficiency. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery was performed to induce sepsis. We found that peripheral 5-HT deficiency reduced NET formation in lung tissues, alleviated sepsis-induced lung inflammatory injury, and reduced the mortality rate of CLP mice. In addition, peripheral 5-HT deficiency was shown to reduce the accumulation of platelets and NETs in the lung of septic mice. We found that platelets from wild-type (WT), but not Tph1 knockout (Tph1−/−), mice promote lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NET formation. Exogenous 5-HT intervention increased LPS-induced NET formation when Tph1−/− platelets were co-cultured with WT neutrophils. Therefore, our study uncovers a mechanism by which peripheral 5-HT aggravated sepsis-induced ALI by promoting NET formation in the lung of septic mice.
Plasma concentrations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from cells involved in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC), their longitudinal trend and association with clinical outcomes were evaluated. Blood samples of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to a medical Unit were longitudinally collected within 48 h of admission, at discharge and 30 days post-discharge. EVs were analyzed using high sensitivity flow cytometry and phospholipid-dependent clotting time (PPL). The following EVs were measured: endothelium-, platelet-, leukocyte-derived, bearing tissue factor (TF)+, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2)+, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGF-β)+ and SARS-CoV-2-nucleoprotein (NP)+. 91 patients were recruited for baseline EV analysis (mean age 67 ± 14 years, 50.5% male) and 48 underwent the longitudinal evaluation. From baseline to 30-days post-discharge, we observed significantly decreased plasma concentrations of endothelium-derived EVs (E-Selectin+), endothelium-derived bearing TF (E-Selectin+ TF+), endothelium-derived bearing ACE2 (E-Selectin+ACE2+) and leukocyte-EVs bearing TF (CD45+TF+), p < 0.001, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively. Conversely, platelet-derived (P-Selectin+) and leukocyte-derived EVs (CD45+) increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (p = 0.038 and 0.032, respectively). EVs TF+, ACE2+, PDGF-β+, and SARS-CoV-2-NP+ did not significantly change during the monitoring. PPL increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (+ 6.3 s, p = 0.006). P-Selectin + EVs >1,054/µL were associated with thrombosis (p = 0.024), E-Selectin + EVs ≤531/µL with worsening/death (p 0.026) and 30-days P-Selectin+ and CD45 + EVs with persistent symptoms (p < 0.0001). We confirmed increased EVs originating from cells involved in CAC at admission and discharge. EVs derived from activated pericytes and expressing SARS-CoV-2-NP were also detected. 30-days post-discharge, endothelium-EVs decreased, while platelet- and leukocyte-EVs further increased, indicating that cellular activation persists long after the acute phase.
A major terrifying ailment afflicting the humans throughout the world is brain tumor, which causes a lot of mortality among pediatric and adult solid tumors. Several major barriers to the treatment and diagnosis of the brain tumors are the specific micro-environmental and cell-intrinsic features of neural tissues. Absence of the nutrients and hypoxia trigger the cells’ mortality in the core of the tumors of humans’ brains: however, type of the cells’ mortality, including apoptosis or necrosis, has been not found obviously. Current studies have emphasized the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) since their crucial impacts on carcinogenesis have been discovered. Several investigations suggest the essential contribution of such molecules in the development of brain tumors and the respective roles in apoptosis. Herein, we summarize the apoptosis-related non-coding RNAs in brain tumors.
Objectives: Radiotherapy improves the survival rate of cancer patients, yet it also involves some inevitable complications. Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is one of the most serious complications, especially the radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, which is characterized by cardiac oxidative stress disorder and programmed cell death. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for RIHD; in addition, it cannot be reversed when it progresses. This study aims to explore the role and potential mechanism of microRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) in RIHD.Methods: Mice were injected with miR-223-3p mimic, inhibitor, or their respective controls in the tail vein and received a single dose of 20 Gy whole-heart irradiation (WHI) for 16 weeks after 3 days to construct a RIHD mouse model. To inhibit adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) or phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), compound C (CompC) and AAV9-shPDE4D were used.Results: WHI treatment significantly inhibited the expression of miR-223-3p in the hearts; furthermore, the levels of miR-223-3p decreased in a radiation time-dependent manner. miR-223-3p mimic significantly relieved, while miR-223-3p inhibitor aggravated apoptosis, oxidative damage, and cardiac dysfunction in RIHD mice. In addition, we found that miR-223-3p mimic improves WHI-induced myocardial injury by activating AMPK and that the inhibition of AMPK by CompC completely blocks these protective effects of miR-223-3p mimic. Further studies found that miR-223-3p lowers the protein levels of PDE4D and inhibiting PDE4D by AAV9-shPDE4D blocks the WHI-induced myocardial injury mediated by miR-223-3p inhibitor.Conclusion: miR-223-3p ameliorates WHI-induced RIHD through anti-oxidant and anti-programmed cell death mechanisms via activating AMPK by PDE4D regulation. miR-223-3p mimic exhibits potential value in the treatment of RIHD.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding transcripts characterized with more than 200 nucleotides of length. Unlike their names, some short open reading frames are recognized for them encoding small proteins. LncRNAs are found to play regulatory roles in essential cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. Therefore, an increasing number of lncRNAs are identified with dysregulation in a wide variety of human cancers. SNHG7 is an lncRNA with upregulation in cancer cells and tissues. It is frequently reported with potency of promoting malignant cell behaviors in vitro and in vivo. Like oncogenic/tumor suppressor lncRNAs, SNHG7 is found to exert its tumorigenic functions through interaction with other biological substances. These include sponging target miRNAs (various numbers are identified), regulation of several signaling pathways, transcription factors, and effector proteins. Importantly, clinical studies demonstrate association between high SNHG7 expression and clinicopathological features in cancerous patients, worse prognosis, and enhanced chemoresistance. In this review, we summarize recent studies in three eras of cell, animal, and human experiments to bold the prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic potentials.
Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response that often leads to cardiac dysfunction, which is termed sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC). Harmine, a natural β-carboline alkaloid compound, has been shown to exert pharmacological effects on several diseases. Here, we investigated whether harmine protected against SIC development and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro, the expression of the M1 phenotype markers iNOS and COX-2 was increased in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but this effect was reversed by the harmine intervention. Furthermore, LPS-induced increases in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, PGE2 and TXB2, generated by macrophages were suppressed when the cells were pretreated with harmine. Meanwhile, our findings showed that harmine administration effectively attenuated inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cells in the proinflammatory environment produced by macrophages, as evidenced by reductions in NLRP3 and cleaved caspase 3 levels and the p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio. The western blot results indicated that the mechanisms underlying harmine-mediated inhibition of M1 polarization might be associated with suppression of STAT1/3, NF-κB and MAPK activation. Furthermore, an LPS injection induced cardiac dysfunction and decreased the survival rate of mice, which were alleviated by harmine treatment, and the relevant mechanism was possibly attributed to a drug-induced attenuation of the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results implied that harmine treatment protected against SIC by suppressing M1 phenotypic polarization and inflammation in macrophages.
Enteric glia are a fascinating population of cells. Initially identified in the gut wall as the “support” cells of the enteric nervous system, studies over the past 20 years have unveiled a vast array of functions carried out by enteric glia. They mediate enteric nervous system signalling and play a vital role in the local regulation of gut functions. Enteric glial cells interact with other gastrointestinal cell types such as those of the epithelium and immune system to preserve homeostasis, and are perceptive to luminal content. Their functional versatility and phenotypic heterogeneity are mirrored by an extensive level of plasticity, illustrated by their reactivity in conditions associated with enteric nervous system dysfunction and disease. As one of the hallmarks of their plasticity and extending their operative relationship with enteric neurons, enteric glia also display neurogenic potential. In this review, we focus on the development of enteric glial cells, and the mechanisms behind their heterogeneity in the adult gut. In addition, we discuss what is currently known about the role of enteric glia as neural precursors in the enteric nervous system.
Cellular functions are largely performed by proteins. Defects in the production, folding, or removal of proteins from the cell lead to perturbations in cellular functions that can result in pathological conditions for the organism. In cells, molecular chaperones are part of a network of surveillance mechanisms that maintains a functional proteome. Chaperones are involved in the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and assist in refolding misfolded proteins and guiding proteins for degradation. The present review focuses on the molecular co-chaperone prefoldin. Its canonical function in eukaryotes involves the transfer of newly synthesized polypeptides of cytoskeletal proteins to the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex (TRiC/CCT) chaperonin which assists folding of the polypeptide chain in an energy-dependent manner. The canonical function of prefoldin is well established, but recent research suggests its broader function in the maintenance of protein homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. Interestingly, non-canonical functions were identified for the prefoldin complex and also for its individual subunits. We discuss the latest findings on the prefoldin complex and its subunits in the regulation of transcription and proteasome-dependent protein degradation and its role in neurological diseases, cancer, viral infections and rare anomalies.
Septin GTPases form nonpolar heteropolymers that play important roles in cytokinesis and other cellular processes. The ability to form heteropolymers appears to be critical to many septin functions and to have been a major driver of the high conservation of many septin domains. Septins fall into five orthologous groups. Members of Groups 1–4 interact with each other to form heterooligomers and are known as the “core septins.” Representative core septins are present in all fungi and animals so far examined and show positional orthology with monomer location in the heteropolymer conserved within groups. In contrast, members of Group 5 are not part of canonical heteropolymers and appear to interact only transiently, if at all, with core septins. Group 5 septins have a spotty distribution, having been identified in specific fungi, ciliates, chlorophyte algae, and brown algae. In this review we compare the septins from nine well-studied model organisms that span the tree of life (Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Schistosoma mansoni, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe oryzae, Tetrahymena thermophila, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). We focus on classification, evolutionary relationships, conserved motifs, interfaces between monomers, and positional orthology within heteropolymers. Understanding the relationships of septins across kingdoms can give new insight into their functions.