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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
J. Pizarro-Araya ◽  
F.M. Alfaro ◽  
P. De Los Ríos-Escalante

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Haijian Li ◽  
Hao Zou ◽  
Zhihua Sun ◽  
Yi Xu ◽  
Changjian Wang ◽  

The composition, structure, and thermal behaviors of yttrium-containing phosphate glasses were studied in this work, and the glass-ceramics were prepared via the two-step crystallization method. The XRD and SEM-EDS results show the forming range of the phosphate glass system and the formation of YPO4 (xenotime) due to the addition of excessive Y2O3. The spectroscopic characterization of these glasses presented shifts of the infrared and Raman bands, demonstrating the depolymerization of the glass network and the formation of novel P–O–Y bonds, and the deconvoluted Raman spectra also exhibited the occurrence of the disproportionation reaction in the glass melting process. The content of non-bridging oxygen (NBOs) from the UV–vis spectra first increased and then decreased with increasing Y2O3. The thermal behaviors show that the Y2O3 reduced the crystallization peak temperature and the thermal stability of the glasses. The crystalline behaviors of the phosphate glass matrix were investigated at different crystallization times of 2–10 h, and a transformation of the crystallization mechanism from surface to volume crystallization was found. The yttrium phosphate glass-ceramics crystallized for 10 h exhibited transformation of the main crystalline phases with increasing Y2O3, and the grain-oriented crystalline surface became irregular.

J. G. Bazarova ◽  
A. V. Logvinova ◽  
B. G. Bazarov

A fundamental problem in materials science consists in establishing a relationship between the chemical composition, structure, and properties of materials. This issue can be solved through the study of multicomponent systems and the directed synthesis of promising compounds. Of practical interest here are active dielectrics that are based on complex oxide compounds, specifically molybdates. Among complex molybdates and tungstates, ternary caged molybdates of the following structural types are of greatest importance: nasicon, perovskite, langbeinite, etc. Due to their widely varying elemental and quantitative compositions, such molybdates are convenient models for structural and chemical design, as well as the establishment of “composition–structure– properties” genetic relationships. Bismuth-containing complex molybdate systems exhibit the formation of phases having ferro-piezoelectric, ionic, and other properties. In this work, the Rb2MoO4–Bi2(MoO4)3–Zr(MoO4)2 ter nary salt system was studied for the first time using the method of intersecting sections in the subsolidus region (450–650 ℃). To this end, quasibinary sections were identified; triangulation was performed. Ternary molybdates Rb5BiZr(MoO4)6 and Rb2BiZr2(MoO4)6,5 were formed in the system using a ceramic technology. These compounds are isostructural to the previously obtained REE molybdates (M5LnZr(MoO4)6) but contain trivalent bismuth instead of rare earth elements. The structure of Rb5BiZr(MoO4)6 was adjusted via the Rietveld refinement technique using the TOPAS 4.2 software package. The ternary molybdate crystallizes in a trigonal system, with the following unit cell parameters of the R`3c space group: a = 10.7756(2) and c = 39.0464(7) Å. According to the studies of thermal properties exhibited by M5BiZr(MoO4)6, these ternary molybdates undergo the first-order phase transition in the temperature range of 450–600 ºC. The IR and Raman spectra of M5BiZr(MoO4)6 reveal the crystallization of ternary molybdates in the R`3c space group. The conducted comparative characterization of M2MoO4–Bi2(MoO4)3–Zr(MoO4)2 phase diagrams suggests that the phase equilibria of these systems depend on the nature of molybdates of monovalent elements.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Gabriella Santagata ◽  
Alessio Cimmino ◽  
Giovanni Dal Poggetto ◽  
Domenico Zannini ◽  
Marco Masi ◽  

Neofusiccocum batangarum is the causal agent of scabby canker of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). The symptoms of this disease are characterized by crusty, perennial cankers, with a leathery, brown halo. Characteristically, a viscous polysaccharide exudate, caking on contact with air, leaks from cankers and forms strips or cerebriform masses on the surface of cactus pear cladodes. When this polysaccharide mass was partial purified, surprisingly, generated a gel. The TLC analysis and the HPLC profile of methyl 2-(polyhydroxyalkyl)-3-(o-tolylthiocarbomoyl)-thiazolidine-4R-carboxylates obtained from the mixture of monosaccharides produced by acid hydrolysis of the three EPSs examined in this research work [the polysaccharide component of the exudate (EPSC) and the EPSs extracted from asymptomatic (EPSH) and symptomatic (EPSD) cladodes] showed the presence of d-galactose, l-rhamnose, and d-glucose in a 1:1:0.5 ratio in EPSC while d-galactose, l-rhamnose, d-glucose, and d-xylose at the same ratio were observed in EPSH and EPSD. The presence of uronic acid residues in EPSC was also showed by solid state NMR and IR investigation. Furthermore, this manuscript reports the chemical-physical characterization of the gel produced by the infected cactus pear.

2022 ◽  
Y. Bagaiskov

Abstract. Heat treatment of ceramic-bond grinding tools during manufacture takes place at temperature of abrasive grains up to 1250 °C, which results in variation of their phase composition, structure, and strength. Similar phenomena may take place during grinding caused by the occurring high-temperature processes. It primarily pertains to alloyed fused alumina. X-ray and topography testing, as well as studying of micromechanical properties made it clear that structural performance, material strength, and fracture pattern of single grains of Ti-containing fused alumina affected by temperature depend on the type and ratio of alloy additives in alumina and on the decomposition level of the Ti2O3 solid solution. In terms of aggregate properties, purple varieties of Cr-Ti fused alumina featuring the minimum TiO2/Cr2O3 ratio of 1.5 in the solid solution after heat treatment are preferable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sang-Myung Jung ◽  
Seonghun Kim

The small intestine is a digestive organ that has a complex and dynamic ecosystem, which is vulnerable to the risk of pathogen infections and disorders or imbalances. Many studies have focused attention on intestinal mechanisms, such as host–microbiome interactions and pathways, which are associated with its healthy and diseased conditions. This review highlights the intestine models currently used for simulating such normal and diseased states. We introduce the typical models used to simulate the intestine along with its cell composition, structure, cellular functions, and external environment and review the current state of the art for in vitro cell-based models of the small intestine system to replace animal models, including ex vivo, 2D culture, organoid, lab-on-a-chip, and 3D culture models. These models are described in terms of their structure, composition, and co-culture availability with microbiomes. Furthermore, we discuss the potential application for the aforementioned techniques to these in vitro models. The review concludes with a summary of intestine models from the viewpoint of current techniques as well as their main features, highlighting potential future developments and applications.

2022 ◽  
Chris Ritchie ◽  
Georgina Kate Such ◽  
Manjiri Choudhari ◽  
Yanting Gao

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are anionic molecular metal oxides with expansive diversity in terms of their composition, structure, nuclearity and charge. Within this vast collection of compounds are dominant structural motifs (POM...

2022 ◽  
Vol 962 (1) ◽  
pp. 012059
R V Shtokalo ◽  
N A Krivolutskaya ◽  
A A Konyshev ◽  
I T Rass ◽  
S I Demidova

Abstract We studied 6 sections of the Arydzhangsky lava formation (P2-T1) in the Kotuy river valley. The results of petrographic and geochemical studies of the composition of rocks of the Arydzhangsky, Khardaksky and Pravoboyarsky formations are presented. The stratigraphic columns of the sections were built and the composition of the rocks was additionally determined using a scanning electron microscope. In this regard, the relative position of these formations was established, the mantle and crust sources of magmas were confirmed. A geochemical identity of the rocks of the Khardaksky formation with the rocks of the Arydzhangsky formation was established, which suggests a similar age of their formation.

SoftwareX ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
pp. 100913
Mikkel S. Bødker ◽  
Collin J. Wilkinson ◽  
John C. Mauro ◽  
Morten M. Smedskjaer

2022 ◽  
Vol 265 ◽  
pp. 109421
Jaime Burbano-Girón ◽  
Kerstin Jantke ◽  
Maria Alejandra Molina-Berbeo ◽  
Natalia Buriticá-Mejía ◽  
J. Nicolás Urbina-Cardona ◽  

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