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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. 80-87
Ben Schrader

During the 1850s the first inland towns were founded at Greytown and Masterton. They signalled a new direction in Pākehā settlement, a movement from coastal edge port "cities" to secondary towns in the (North Island) interior. It was from these centres that colonisation proceeded apace. These new towns followed the pattern of New Zealand urbanism established in the 1840s: low-density development with houses and buildings scattered over a wide domain. Could they then really be called towns? Architecturally, the built environment of all towns might be best described as utilitarian and frontier-like. But the decade is notable for the first expressions of a grander, civic architecture, best shown in the construction of public buildings, some of which are examined here. Were these New Zealand's first urban buildings?

Nebojša M. Jurišević ◽  
Dušan R. Gordić ◽  
Vladimir Vukašinović ◽  
Arso M. Vukicevic ◽  

Preschool buildings are among the biggest water consumers in the public buildings sector, which efficient management of water consumption could make considerable savings in city budgets. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to assess prognostic performances of 21 parameters that influence the water consumption and 2) to assess performances of two different approaches (statistical and machine learning-based) with 6 various predictive models for the estimation of water consumption by using the observed parameters. The considered data set was collected from the total share of public preschool buildings in the city of Kragujevac, Serbia, over a three-year period. Top-performing statistical-based model was Multiple Linear Regression, while the best machine learning method was Random Forest. Particularly, Random Forest gained the best overall performances while the Multiple linear regression showed the same precision as the Random Forest when dealing with buildings that consume more than 200 m3/month. It is found that both methods provide satisfying estimates, leaving for potential users to choose between better performances (Random Forest) or usability (Multiple Linear Regression).

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Cagla Keles ◽  
Fatih Yazicioglu

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to identify the sustainability conditions of primary schools in Turkey within the scope of the life cycle assessment (LCA). It is aimed to develop optimum alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of primary schools and reach environmental sustainability targets of the sustainable development goals in Turkey.Design/methodology/approachFrom the construction project of 103 buildings located in Istanbul, 10 case buildings with various typical plans were chosen for analysis. The results regarding their life cycle energy and carbon emission for material production, operation and maintenance stages were calculated for a lifespan of 50 years. Results were evaluated and compared within the scope of environmental sustainability. Optimum alternatives for improving the environmental sustainability and performances of selected case buildings’ facades were developed, and the life cycle energy and carbon emission for proposed conditions were calculated. The obtained results were evaluated for current and proposed conditions.FindingsResults showed that reinforced concrete material contributes the most to the life cycle-embodied energy and CO2 emission of buildings. Cooling load increases the life cycle operational energy (LCOE) and CO2 emission of buildings. Using high-performance glazing significantly reduces LCOE and CO2 emission. Recycled and fiber-based materials have significant potential for reducing life cycle-embodied energy and CO2 emission.Originality/valueThis study has been developed in response to achieving sustainable development targets on public buildings in Turkey. In this regard, external walls of primary schools were analyzed within the scope of LCA and recommendations were made to contribute to the policies and regulations requested by the Government of Turkey. This study proves that alternative and novel materials have great potential for achieving sustainable public buildings. The study answers to questions about reducing the environmental impact of primary school buildings by using LCA approach with a holistic point of view.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Xiancheng Liu ◽  
Congxiang Tian

With the rapid development of network technology, people are increasingly dependent on the internet. When BP neural network (BNN) performs simulation calculation, it has the advantages of fast training speed, high accuracy, and strong robustness and is widely used in large-scale public (LSP) building energy consumption (BEC) monitoring platforms (LPB). Therefore, the purpose of this paper to study the energy consumption monitoring platform of large public (LP) buildings is to better monitor the energy consumption of public buildings, so as to supplement or remedy at any time. This article mainly uses the data analysis method and the experimental method to carry on the relevant research and the system test to the BNN. The experimental results show that the monitoring system (MS) platform designed in this paper has real-time performance, and its time consumption is between 2 s and 3 s, and the data accords with theory and reality.

2021 ◽  
Graciela Eva Naveda ◽  
France Dominique Louie ◽  
Corinna Locatelli ◽  
Julien Davard ◽  
Sara Fragassi ◽  

Abstract Natural gas has become one of the major sources of energy for homes, public buildings and businesses, therefore gas storage is particularly important to ensure continuous provision compensating the differences between supply and demand. Stogit, part of Snam group, has been carrying out gas storage activities since early 1960's. Natural gas is usually stored underground, in large storage reservoirs. The gas is injected into the porous rock of depleted reservoirs bringing the reservoir nearby to its original condition. Injected gas can be withdrawn depending on the need. Gas market demands for industries and homes in Italy are mostly guaranteed from those Stogit reservoirs even in periods when imports are in crisis. Typically, from April to October, the gas is injected in these natural reservoirs that are "geologically tested"; while from November to March, gas is extracted from the same reservoirs and pumped into the distribution networks to meet the higher consumer demand.  Thirty-eight (38) wells, across nine (9) depleted fields, are completed with downhole quartz gauges and some of them with fiber-optics gauges. Downhole gauges are installed to continuously measure and record temperature and pressure from multiple reservoirs. The Real Time data system installed for 29 wells is used to collect, transmit and make available downhole data to Stogit (Snam) headquarter office. Data is automatically collected from remote terminal units (RTUs) and transferred over Stogit (Snam) network. The entire system works autonomously and has the capability of being remotely managed from anywhere over the corporate Stogit (Snam) IT network. Historical trends, including fiber optics gauges ones, are visualized and data sets could be retrieved using a fast and user-friendly software that enables data import into interpretation and reservoir modeling software. The use of this data collection and transmission system, versus the traditional manual download, brought timely data delivery to multiple users, coupled with improved personnel safety since land travels were eliminated. The following pages describe the case study, lessons learned, and integrated new practices used to improve the current and future data transmission deployments.

Heritage ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 3349-3364
Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci ◽  
Mladen Obad Šćitaroci

The research of the urban morphology of Zagreb in the second half of the 19th century was done with the intention of showing the importance of inherited urban morphology and the importance of urban identity factors at a time when preparations are being made for reconstruction after the 2020 earthquake. The research was performed on the basis of old maps and plans and previous research on urban development. The medieval town of Zagreb began to develop in a planned manner in the second half of the 19th century. The orthogonal street grid in the new town built in the 19th century and called the Lower Town—were the result of urban utopian times and the first written legislation on urban planning (1857), the first development plan (1864/1865), and a second development plan (1887/1889). The concept for the urban design of the Lower Town has three distinct themes: an orthogonal street grid, public parks and squares and public buildings. The series of public spaces, consisting of seven squares and the Botanical Gardens, became a landmark pattern in the urban morphology of Zagreb at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. This urban pattern, as a lasting value, remains the main landmark for any new architectural and urban interventions in the town historic part.

V. Deshko ◽  
M. Shovkaliuk ◽  
Yu. Kuzmyna

Ukraine is an energy dependent country. The largest energy consumer in Ukraine is the household sector and industry. The technical characteristics of most existing serial buildings in Ukraine do not meet modern requirements for energy consumption. One of the tools to influence the reduction of consumption of construction resources is the introduction into the regulatory framework of requirements for improving energy efficiency. With the entry into force of the Law of Ukraine "On Energy Certification of Buildings", the development of an energy certificate has become mandatory for new buildings, state-owned buildings, local government buildings and in case of attracting public funds for thermal modernization of buildings. The energy certificate is developed by a certified energy auditor and entered into an open database in the Unified State System in the field of construction. The energy certificate contains an energy efficiency class determined by calculation according to the methodology of the national standard, which is developed taking into account European approaches to the calculation of energy consumption for different needs of buildings. The generalized analysis of the data from the available certificates is of considerable interest for estimating the characteristics of enclosing structures, engineering systems and equipment and the actual and estimated specific energy consumption of different types of buildings. In this study, the authors focused on the energy efficiency of new buildings (starting in 2019). The following indicators of residential and public buildings were analyzed: heat transfer resistance of external walls and translucent structures, specific energy consumption, primary energy, specific CO2 emissions, energy efficiency class. It was determined that the potential for energy savings compared to similar buildings in the European Union is significant, so improving the energy efficiency of the construction sector is an extremely important issue in Ukraine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 29-40
A. S. Vasilyev ◽  
I. K. Romanovich ◽  
D. V. Kononenko ◽  
T. A. Kormanovskaya ◽  
K. A. Saprykin ◽  

According to the analysis of requests for methodological assistance to the Saint-Petersburg Research In ­stitute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P. V. Ramzaev, measurements of radon concentration (or radon EEC) in existing operated public buildings (primarily children institutions) in the framework of surveillance actions in the regions of the Russian Federation, as a rule, are taken according to Guidelines MU, intended for radiation control of public buildings only when they are put into operation after construction, major repairs or reconstruction, due to the absence of special guidelines. Compliance with the requirements of paragraph 6.5 of MU means that the building and premises are in a state that is not equal to their normal operation mode. Registration of high values of indoor radon concentration in this case leads to management decisions, including administrative suspension o f activities for up to ninety days, i.e. the closure of individual premises or even the entire building of a children institution. The consequences of making such decisions may include an increase in social tension in society and provoking radiophobia among the population. The paper presents specific recommendations for the radon survey for existing operated public buildings with non-round-the-clock stay of people, which are based on the results of the analysis of the experience of practical application of various methods of measuring indoor radon concentrations in such buildings in order to assess average radon concentration during working hours in the normal operation mode. The proposed approach can be further used as the basis for developing special guidelines for radiation control of existing operated public buildings with non-round-the-clock stay of people. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Donglei Wu ◽  
Minwei Guo

Since the beginning of data mining technologies, buildings have become not just energy-intensive but also information-centric. Data mining technologies have been widely used to utilize the huge quantities of buildings’ operational data to improve their energy systems. Conventional benchmarking of buildings’ energy performance reflects a variety of parameters, such as the number of inhabitants, the environment, the energy efficiency of equipment utilized, and the adjustment of internal temperature. These various elements are then assigned weights to generate a single general indicator. This study presents a reasonable benchmark assessment methodology of conventional buildings’ energy usage based on a data-mining algorithm for acquiring more specific information, like the energy management efficacy of a building, and aiming at the problem of ineffective use of large amounts of energy consumption in public buildings. A mathematical-statistical approach and a data-mining tool are used to analyse the data. The degree of connection between numerous influencing variables (i.e., characteristic parameters) and building’s energy usage is determined using grey correlation analysis. In this work, we have used an enhanced Apriori algorithm to identify the link between the different forms of systems in the same area. In short, the fundamental idea and process of the Apriori algorithm are presented, and preliminary designs of the preprocessing of experimental data as well as the analysis methods are studied to analyse the outcome of the proposed work.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. 883-893
Amanda Halim ◽  
Ahmad Fudholi ◽  
Kamarulzzaman Sopian ◽  
Stephen J. Phillips

In recent years, the concept of hybrid energy systems (HESs) has been widely considered in the rural electrification of isolated or off-grid areas. Many cases have been studied since 2015, and the results indicate that an optimally designed HES is more reliable and economical than single energy source systems. Serving electricity to rural areas which are isolated from the central grid and thus suffer from lack of access requires an appropriate technology selection. In the provision of non-fluctuating electricity to a village on an island located in Mersing, Malaysia, solar energy is perceived to be the best addition to the existing power system that runs with a diesel generator as the main and single source. The area receives 4.46 kWhm−2 of solar radiation per day on average having the hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery system set up to supply the energy demand from about 16 households with other public buildings. This paper discusses the feasibility of the proposed system design for rural electrification at Kg Teluk Berhala, Aur Island Mersing, Malaysia and its performance is analysed using HOMER Pro®. A comparative analysis against existing configuration (baseline) and hypothetical configuration was conducted in justifying the hybrid-PV-diesel-battery as the best option for this rural electrification.

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