historical background
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Author(s):  
فراس محمد إبراهيم ◽  
سعد عبد الله سعد ◽  
سكينة علي حسن

This study discusses the situations of education, labor and the use of technology in the Kingdom of Bahrain during the Corona pandemic and the precautionary measures taken by the Kingdom of Bahrain during this serious pandemic. The study started with a simple introduction of the Corona virus to show the historical background of this virus. The researchers collected the necessary data and statistics related to the subject of the research from trusted resources and they relied the results of the questionnaire to reach the best conclusions, as the questionnaire included some important questions related to the topic of research. The aim of this study is to come up with a complete vision about the Corona crisis that has gripped the whole world in a terrified way, and the study includes the precautionary measures and internal decisions taken by the government in the Kingdom of Bahrain related to the distance learning in various governmental and private educational institutions, as well as the status of labor in different Sectors. Research also focused on the impact of the use of technology in reducing the impact of the pandemic, and it was found that the results were identical or close to the researchers' expectation. This study showed the prompt interaction shown by the leadership of the Kingdom of Bahrain during the event, which tends to a positive impact on adaptation to continue education and labor stability in different sectors. It also showed that Bahrain possesses excellent technological infrastructure that helped to confront the crisis successfully.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Dina Lupin

Abstract At the end of apartheid, the South African government adopted laws regulating civil society that are widely seen as “good” laws: laws designed to encourage and facilitate a thriving civil society sector. In 2019 the Ethiopian government repealed the repressive, decade-old Charities and Societies Proclamation and replaced it with a much more open and permissive regulatory system, also aimed at facilitating a thriving civil society sector. This article compares South Africa's post-apartheid civil society organization (CSO) laws with Ethiopia's 2019 law, to examine the different and overlapping ways in which these regimes attempt to advance the interests of CSOs against an historical background of state oppression. In doing so, it examines what “good” regulation of CSOs constitutes in practice and finds that there are significant limits to the effectiveness of regulatory change in addressing the many, complex problems CSOs face, especially in the wake of political and legal oppression.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Jalali ◽  
zahra zandieh

Legends and folktales are an indispensable part of the literature and culture of any nation. They are reflection of the culture, civilization and customs of every nation, which is part of the literature and history of each country. They have also carried moral, philosophical and national messages since ancient times and their main purpose has been to educate the next generation and to transmit cultural and national concepts. This article tries to analyze two cultures by focusing on their legends and folktales based on their literary and historical background.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 786
Author(s):  
Gracia Fahed ◽  
Laurence Aoun ◽  
Morgan Bou Zerdan ◽  
Sabine Allam ◽  
Maroun Bou Zerdan ◽  
...  

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) forms a cluster of metabolic dysregulations including insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension. The pathogenesis of MetS encompasses multiple genetic and acquired entities that fall under the umbrella of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. If left untreated, MetS is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Given that CVDs constitute by far the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it has become essential to investigate the role played by MetS in this context to reduce the heavy burden of the disease. As such, and while MetS relatively constitutes a novel clinical entity, the extent of research about the disease has been exponentially growing in the past few decades. However, many aspects of this clinical entity are still not completely understood, and many questions remain unanswered to date. In this review, we provide a historical background and highlight the epidemiology of MetS. We also discuss the current and latest knowledge about the histopathology and pathophysiology of the disease. Finally, we summarize the most recent updates about the management and the prevention of this clinical syndrome.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Jalali ◽  
zahra zandieh

Legends and folktales are an indispensable part of the literature and culture of any nation. They are reflection of the culture, civilization and customs of every nation, which is part of the literature and history of each country. They have also carried moral, philosophical and national messages since ancient times and their main purpose has been to educate the next generation and to transmit cultural and national concepts. This article tries to analyze two cultures by focusing on their legends and folktales based on their literary and historical background.


Author(s):  
Yi-Jin Park ◽  
Sam-Hun Park

The Motherhood Protection Act (1996), which corresponds to modern family health in Japan, was enacted based on the Eugenics Protection Law (1948) for the protection of national eugenics. This leads us to the question of how maternal health and eugenics began to merge in Japan. Answer of this will elucidate the characteristics of family health in Japan and historical background. Maternal health and eugenics began to be fused in Japan in the early 20th century. In this paper, we examined Taikyō, which is the source of this fusion. This book was widely disseminated to the public. An educational book influenced the Japanese women’s movement. Taikyō argued that from the standpoint of public health, responsibility for prenatal care should be extended to the husband, family, society and the nation. It emphasized that “mental hygiene” is necessary to produce a genetically good child, and that spouse selection is important. Books on prenatal care published in the first half of the 20th century, following Taikyō’s description of prenatal care as a form of eugenics. The National Eugenic Act enacted to protect national hygiene inspired the classification of the Japanese as ​​a chosen nation. The theory of prenatal care, which was created from the combination of public hygiene and eugenics, provided a justification for the National Eugenic Act, and this still serves as the basis for the Eugenics Protection Law and Motherhood Protection Act. It provides the “scientific basis” for recognizing that “unsanitary” and “disability” are bad.


Author(s):  
Wolfgang I. Schöllhorn ◽  
Nikolas Rizzi ◽  
Agnė Slapšinskaitė-Dackevičienė ◽  
Nuno Leite

This critical review considers the epistemological and historical background of the theoretical construct of motor learning for a more differentiated understanding. More than simply reflecting critically on the models that are used to solve problems—whether they are applied in therapy, physical education, or training practice—this review seeks to respond constructively to the recent discussion caused by the replication crisis in life sciences. To this end, an in-depth review of contemporary motor learning approaches is provided, with a pragmatism-oriented clarification of the researcher’s intentions on fundamentals (what?), subjects (for whom?), time intervals (when?), and purpose (for what?). The complexity in which the processes of movement acquisition, learning, and refinement take place removes their predictable and linear character and therefore, from an applied point of view, invites a great deal of caution when trying to make generalization claims. Particularly when we attempt to understand and study these phenomena in unpredictable and dynamic contexts, it is recommended that scientists and practitioners seek to better understand the central role that the individual and their situatedness plays in the system. In this way, we will be closer to making a meaningful and authentic contribution to the advancement of knowledge, and not merely for the sake of renaming inventions.


Arts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Author(s):  
Joanna Jabłońska ◽  
Małgorzata Telesińska ◽  
Agnieszka Adamska ◽  
Joanna Gronostajska

In contemporary architecture, a border between an exterior and an interior—a façade—is variously designed in terms of form, style, response to climate or culture, individual approach or tools used. Despite the diversity and multi-tread theoretical and practical discourse, the Authors propose the typology of contemporary façades for public buildings (open to society) in the context of European cities by extracting comprehensive architectural features. The term systematic reflects the complexness of the issue by the newly proposed element. Namely, it is a representation of a particular architectural feature with the use of scale. The elaboration consists of (1) an introduction with a literature review and thesis, (2) our aim and method, (3) a historical background; case studies, and systematics introduction (4) conclusions with typology proposal.


Author(s):  
Kathryn D. Brimhall

The purpose of this review of literature was to investigate the unique issues facing female band directors at the high school and college levels. A search of 5 different databases was conducted, and 39 studies met the inclusion criteria for this study. Results of this review of literature are presented according to the following themes: (a) historical background, (b) underrepresentation and lack of female mentors, (c) motherhood, and (d) discrimination. Although the number of female high school and college band directors continues to increase, there are many different issues that women may face professionally. Despite these issues, women continue to persevere as they fight for their place on the podium. Recommendations for female music educators are provided, as well as suggestions for future research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-24
Author(s):  
Russell Dewhurst

All Christians are called to pray. The daily offering of Morning and Evening Prayer is a particular obligation of the clergy of the Church of England, as part of the ‘manner of life of clerks’ laid down in Canon C 26. However, despite the significant time devoted to these prayers by the clergy on a daily basis, there has been little detailed examination of this canonical obligation. This article explores the historical background to the obligation and its effect today.


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