AbstractA personal microclimate management system is designed to maintain thermal comfort which allows people to overcome a harsh environment. It consists of several micro-fans placed in the garment side seam to provide cooling air. The computational fluid dynamics method was used to simulate the three-dimensional model and analysis the influence of fan’s number and air gap distance. The obtained results depict that the introduced cool airflow will find its way along paths with flow resistance minimized and exhaust through several separated exit. The body heat flux is taken away at the same time. The convection effect is enhanced by the increase in the fans’ numbers, but the fans’ cooling effect varies a lot because of various air gap distances. When the air gap is small enough, the cooling air impact the body surface directly and causes fierce heat loss. While the air gap distance is large enough, the heat transfer along the skin surface could be enhanced by the eddy flow which is existed in the air gap between body and garment. These phenomena can maintain the body’s thermal comfort in a suitable range.
Postmodern architecture is responsible for carrying out the building distributions of the urban canyon of cities; For this, it provides the tools required to adjust the territory to social, economic, and environmental needs. One of these tools is aimed at the applicability of construction strategies such as the correct solar orientation. The present investigation of an experimental nature, carried out in the Crucita parish of Ecuador, evaluates the thermal temperatures inside two houses in their current state, assessing it in two prototypes with one water and two waters on the four cardinal orientations: with four different angles of inclination of the cover. Where it was determined that the thermal comfort inside that provides the least increase in temperature is for the house with a roof facing west, with an angle of inclination greater than 20°.
Satisfactory indoor thermal environments can improve working efficiencies of office staff. To build such satisfactory indoor microclimates, individual thermal comfort assessment is important, for which personal clothing insulation rate (Icl) and metabolic rate (M) need to be estimated dynamically. Therefore, this paper proposes a vision-based method. Specifically, a human tracking-by-detection framework is implemented to acquire each person’s clothing status (short-sleeved, long-sleeved), key posture (sitting, standing), and bounding box information simultaneously. The clothing status together with a key body points detector locate the person’s skin region and clothes region, allowing the measurement of skin temperature (Ts) and clothes temperature (Tc), and realizing the calculation of Icl from Ts and Tc. The key posture and the bounding box change across time can category the person’s activity intensity into a corresponding level, from which the M value is estimated. Moreover, we have collected a multi-person thermal dataset to evaluate the method. The tracking-by-detection framework achieves a mAP50 (Mean Average Precision) rate of 89.1% and a MOTA (Multiple Object Tracking Accuracy) rate of 99.5%. The Icl estimation module gets an accuracy of 96.2% in locating skin and clothes. The M estimation module obtains a classification rate of 95.6% in categorizing activity level. All of these prove the usefulness of the proposed method in a multi-person scenario of real-life applications.
Smart building issues are critical for current energy and comfort managing aspects in built environments. Nevertheless, the diffusion of smart monitoring solutions via user-friendly graphical interfaces is still an ongoing issue subject to the need to diffuse a smart building culture and a low-cost series of solutions. This paper proposes a new low-cost IoT sensor network, exploiting Raspberry Pi and Arduino platforms, for collecting real-time data and evaluating specific thermal comfort indicators (PMV and PPD). The overall architecture was accordingly designed, including the hardware setup, the back-end and the Android user interface. Eventually, three distinct prototyping platforms were deployed for initial testing of the general system, and we analysed the obtained results for different building typologies and seasonal periods, based on collected data and users’ preferences. This work is part of a large educational and citizen science activity.
Urban growth has increased the risk of over-heating both in the microclimate and inside buildings, affecting thermal comfort and energy efficiency. That is why this research aims to evaluate the energy performance of buildings in terms of thermal comfort (operative temperature (OP) levels, satisfied hours of natural ventilation SHNV, thermal lag), and energy efficiency (roof heat gains and surface temperatures) in an urban area in Panama City, using superficial-heat-dissipation biomimetic strategies. Two case studies, a base case and a proposed case, were evaluated using the Designbuilder software through dynamic simulation. The proposed case is based on a combined biomimetic strategy; the reflective characteristics of the Saharan ant applied as a coating on the roofs through a segmented pattern such as the Zebra’s stripes (one section with coating, and another without). Results showed that the OP decreased from 8 to 10 °C for the entire urban zone throughout the year. A reduction of 3.13% corresponding to 8790 kWh per year was achieved for cooling energy consumption. A difference of 5 °C in external surface temperature was obtained, having a lower temperature in which the biomimetic strategy was applied. Besides, it was evidenced that a contrasted-reflectivity-stripes pitched roof performed better than a fully reflective roof. Thus, the functionality of Zebra stripes, together with the reflective characteristics of the Saharan ant, provide better performance for buildings’ thermal regulation and energy needs for cooling.