neotropical region
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
G. G. Silva ◽  
A. J. Green ◽  
C. Stenert ◽  
L. Maltchik

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (4) ◽  
pp. 559-566

Two new species of Acanthocinini are described from the Neotropical region: Leptostylus skillmani, from Guatemala; and Anisopodus morrisi, from French Guiana. Additionally, the holotype of Leptostylus lilliputanus Thomson, 1865 is illustrated for the first time.  

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (3) ◽  
pp. 95-102

A new species, Leptoconops (Proleptoconops) chacoensis, is described and photographed from a female collected in a forest area of the Chaco province, Argentina. This is the first record of the subgenus L. (Proleptoconops) Clastrier from the Neotropical region south of Mexico, and the new species is compared with L. (P.) werneri Wirth & Atchley from southern USA and Mexico and L. (P.) aviarum from Tajikistan. Besides, the first description of the male of L. (Leptoconops) casali Cavalieri & Chiossone is provided, from males collected associated with females in La Rioja and La Pampa provinces, Argentina, and this species is newly recorded from several areas of the country, significantly enlarging its geographical distribution. In addition, a key to Neotropical species of the genus is provided.  

2022 ◽  
Amanda de Faria Santos ◽  
Eliana Marques Cancello ◽  
Adriana Coletto Morales

Abstract The neotropical region ranks third in the number of termites with five different families. Of these, Termitidae is the most diverse and includes the species Nasutitermes ephratae and is common in the neotropics. To date, only one study has been published about phylogeographic issues in neotropical termites (N. corniger). Here, we aimed to investigate and analyze the population genetic patterns of N. ephratae and then evaluated the phylogeographical processes involved in the evolutionary history of the species. We used the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COII as molecular markers: These were sequenced for 128 samples of N. ephratae. We estimated the genetic diversity and divergence time as well as the demographic and genetic structure analyses. We also produced ancestral area reconstruction and a haplotype network. The results showed high genetic variability, recent demographic expansion, and strong genetic structure. We also inferred a dispersal route for the species that occurred in both directions between South and Central America. The results emphasize a temporary separation between the South and Central America population that affected the origin of the current Central America populations. These were formed form different phylogeographic histories.

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5091 (1) ◽  
pp. 107-130

Popularly known as fungus gnats, Mycetophilidae are found in humid environments usually associated with mushrooms and decaying wood. Their immature forms often feed on fungus fruiting bodies. Similar to most bibionomorphans, mycetophilids need due attention concerning their taxonomy and information on their natural history, especially in the Neotropical region. This work describes Monoclona carambeiensis sp. nov., a new species of Monoclona Mik, and furnishes information on the morphology of adults and immatures, besides notes and photographs on the life cycle of the species. Immature forms present on a piece of decaying wood with lichens and fungi were collected from Carambeí, Paraná, and reared in the laboratory. The emerged adult male was fixed in 80% ethanol. This is the first study describing an immature of a Neotropical species of Monoclona, and also the first record of the genus in the state of Paraná, Brazil. This is the third Neotropical species of Mycetophilidae to have its life cycle described, for a fauna with over 1,100 known species.  

Zootaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5087 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-58

This checklist of oribatid mites of the Republic of Colombia compiles and provides a taxonomic update of all records known up to 2020. It includes 192 entries accounting for 68 named and 47 unnamed species belonging to 73 genera and 58 families of non-astigmatid oribatid mites. Specimens from the brachypyline supercohort were dominant (54.7%), followed by Mixonomata (30.7%). However, current knowledge is far from being complete and distribution patterns show large gaps throughout the country due to this lacking knowledge and most existing investigations only include group specific studies that prevent from any conclusions regarding the real community composition of oribatids in Colombia. From 32 political-administrative departments, oribatids have been reported in 20, but 5 account for 65% of the records. These are: Cundinamarca -including Bogotá D.C.- (24.4%), Magdalena (21.8%), Nariño (6.3%), La Guajira (6.3%), and Quindío (5.9%). Whereas most oribatid reports in the Neotropical region have taken place during the past five decades, a map presented in this document shows that Colombia still lags behind other Latin American countries. Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil, for instance, have reported the highest number of species for the region and are the only nations that possess national oribatid checklists in Latin America. The current work represents a national baseline of oribatids encouraging further study of this clearly underrepresented group.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e7511124558
Bruna da Silva ◽  
Suéle Santolin ◽  
Renan de Souza Rezende

We evaluated the insect succession in small rodent carcasses on the soil extracts (surface vs. buried) in two areas (riparian vs. agricultural) and two seasonal periods (spring vs. summer). Daily, the rodent carcasses were weighed and the insects present were collected in them for counting and family level identification. We also measured the air and soil temperature daily, in addition to the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The total of 11,059 individuals from 28 taxa was collected. The most abundant taxa were Calliphoridae (70%), Formicidae (20%), Muscidae (2%), and Sarcophagidae (2%). Insect richness was higher in spring in riparian vegetation areas; however, decomposition and insect abundance were greater in spring in agricultural areas by the high temperature measured. Vespidae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Calliphoridae decreased over time with abundance peaks respectively at 3, 7, 7, and 8 days in riparian vegetation areas. Calliphoridae decreased abundance over time with a peak at five days, but Armadillidiidae increased with peak at 6-9 days in agricultural areas. Decay and insect abundance was high in agricultural areas, mainly on the soil surface. Insect richness was high in riparian vegetation areas, especially on the soil surface. Only the superficial layers of soil presented taxon indicators and all decreased over time with abundance peaks of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae at 5-8, 7, and 7 days, respectively. This abundance peak of insect families help to understand the degradative succession of the insect community in small rodents in subtropical systems of the neotropical region.

Elijah Talamas ◽  
Ovidiu Alin Popovici

The presence of Platyscelio (Platygastroidea, Scelionidae) in the Neotropical region is confirmed. After a recent record from French Guiana, a second specimen of Platyscelio was found in samples from the Republic of Suriname, being a new record for the fauna of this country.  

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