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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 365-288
Mohammed Shamssain ◽  
Anisa Alhamadi ◽  
Siba Nezar Al Afandi ◽  
Tasneem Naeem Awadallah ◽  
Shatha Naeem Awadallah

Very few studies have been carried out on asthma and allergies in pre-schoolchildren. This is the first study of pre-school children with asthma and allergies in the United Arab Emirates. We studied 4,000 pre-schoolchildren from the United Arab Emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. The ages of the study group were between 1-5 years, and were 2,000 boys and 2,000 girls; they were randomly selected from kindergartens and nurseries. We used the standardised International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The mean (SD) age, height, weight and BMI were 3.3 (1.4) years, 92.0 (1.3) cm, 17.3 (5.2) kg, and 23.4 (9.3). The prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, “asthma” , “dry night cough”, and “exercise-induced asthma” were 40.4%, 43.8%, 37.6%, 26.5%, 36.1, and 37.6%, respectively. Boys had a significantly higher prevalence of wheeze ever and current wheeze than girls. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of speech limitation than boys. The prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, “itchy watery eyes” and “hay fever” were 42%, 40.5%, 39.1% and 46.9%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, and “itchy watery eyes” than girls. The prevalence rates of “rash ever”, “current rash” and “eczema ever” were 38.9%, 33.7% and 58.0%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of rash ever, current rash, and eczema ever than girls. Children who were exposed to parental smoking have significantly higher prevalence rates of asthma, wheezing, and cough than those whom were not exposed. Children who breastfed more than 10 months had a significantly lower prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, and “asthma”, than those whom breastfed less than 10 months. The prevalence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were very high. Breastfeeding was found to be protective for asthma. The study can be used as a baseline intervention project to reduce incidents of asthma and allergies in these children and to establish atopic march in order to implement strategies to improve the respiratory health and allergies in these children. Keywords: asthma, wheeze, night cough, rhinitis, eczema, pre-school children, paediatric asthma

2022 ◽  
Marta Cortes ◽  
Fernando Carceller ◽  
Alba Rubio‐San‐Simón ◽  
Sucheta J. Vaidya ◽  
Francisco Bautista ◽  

Jenail Mobaraka ◽  
Lian Elkazzaz ◽  
Niveen Rizkalla

Conducting an international research study may bear various challenges; however, during the global COVID-19 crisis, such a study undertakes unpredictable trajectories. This paper explores the challenges experienced by researchers studying Syrian refugees’ physical and mental health and aid workers serving under humanitarian organizations in Lebanon. It includes information about the changes in the study’s goals and design with the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2, as necessitated by the circumstances COVID-19 imposed. It focuses on the unique perspectives of the research team of two students and their mentor who faced multiple challenges while involved in the study, and their narratives and subjective experiences that led to new opportunities for growth in the project. The research team specifically engaged in humanistic and existential psychology in order to conduct research in a manner conducive to personal and professional development, productivity and growth. To conclude, the researchers propose recommendations to the academic community on mitigating some of the challenges faced when conducting international research, and suggestions to the humanitarian sector serving vulnerable populations in conflict zones during COVID-19.

Qeios ◽  
2022 ◽  
Adriana Cordova ◽  
marta nichelini ◽  
Francesca Toia

2022 ◽  
pp. 102831532110701
Nathalie Holvoet ◽  
Sara Dewachter

This paper studies (trans)national social capital gained through an international study experience in Belgium. Drawing upon a multi-method alumni study, we explore different types of (inter)national networks of male and female graduates, the extent to which different networks remained after graduation as well as effects on personal and professional development and organizational performance. Findings show that graduates have particularly gained networks with non-co-nationals which evolve from bridging relations at the outset to bonding relations while particularly networks with the host population remain limited. After returning home, bonding social interaction relations remain most important, irrespective of the nationality of the graduates, whereas information sharing and collaboration networks survive better among co-nationals, particularly when these are triggered through national alumni chapters. Our study finds network effects on individual's intercultural skills, knowledge and attitudes, their professional career and organizational performance, with intercultural gains being particularly high for networks with non-co-nationals from other continents.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260770
Giovanni Luigi De Maria ◽  
Luca Testa ◽  
Jose M. de la Torre Hernandez ◽  
Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios ◽  
Maria Emfietzoglou ◽  

Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is used increasingly for revascularization of unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease. Observational studies and subgroup analyses from clinical trials, have suggested a possible benefit from the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance when performing unprotected LMCA PCI. However, the value of imaging with IVUS has never been proven in an appropriately powered randomized clinical trial. The OPtimizaTIon of Left MAin PCI With IntravascuLar Ultrasound (OPTIMAL) trial has been designed to establish whether IVUS-guided PCI optimization on LMCA is associated with superior clinical outcomes when compared with standard qualitative angiography-guided PCI. Methods The OPTIMAL trial is a randomized, multicenter, international study designed to enroll a total of 800 patients undergoing PCI for unprotected LMCA disease. Patients will be randomized in a 1:1 fashion to IVUS-guided PCI versus angiogram-guided PCI. In patients allocated to the angiogram-guided arm, use of IVUS is discouraged, unless there are safety concerns. In patients allocated to the IVUS guidance arm, pre-procedural IVUS assessment is highly recommended, whilst post-procedural IVUS assessment is mandatory to confirm appropriate stenting result and/or to guide stent result optimization, according to predefined criteria. Patients will be followed up to 2 years after the index procedure. The primary outcome measure is the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) patient-oriented composite endpoint (PoCE) which includes all-cause death, any stroke, any myocardial infarction and any repeat revascularization at 2 years follow-up. Discussion The OPTIMAL trial aims to provide definitive evidence about the clinical impact of IVUS-guidance during PCI to an unprotected LMCA. It is anticipated by the investigators, that an IVUS-guided strategy will be associated with less clinical events compared to a strategy guided by angiogram alone. Trial registration NCT04111770. Registered on October 1, 2019.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Ju-hyoung Lee ◽  
Marady Cheng ◽  
Muhammad Nur Syamsi ◽  
Ki Hwan Lee ◽  
Thu Rain Aung ◽  

In modern society, the opportunity to experience nature is separate from everyday life, requiring time and effort. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, restrictions on freedom of activity and communication around the world have become a crisis, causing a nature deficit by accelerating the process of separation from nature. At the same time, the pandemic has increased people’s motivation to return to nature, providing an opportunity to seek experiences and health recovery in nature. The authors conducted an international cross-sectional study in five Asian countries, investigating changes in the perception of recreational activities and health restoration in the natural environment, one of the many effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on human society. An online survey, completed by 524 respondents, has confirmed the efficacy of the SEM model, which includes COVID-19 stress, increased indoor activity, a preference for the natural environment, and the perception of health recovery. Although the five countries had different response values for each theme, the stress caused by restricted activities and communication during the pandemic was linked to a preference for natural experiences and the motivation to visit natural environments in all five countries, ultimately affecting perceptions of health recovery in nature. This study has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic, a disaster afflicting all human civilization, has changed people’s perceptions by enhancing their preference for natural recreational activities and health. It has accelerated people’s return to nature and fostered a positive perception of nature’s ability to promote good health.

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