AbstractHereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma caused by loss-of-function germline variants of the FH gene can develop into aggressive renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We report the case of a 27-year-old man who died of RCC. Genetic testing revealed a novel pathogenic variant of FH, NM_000143.3:c.1013_1014del (p.Ile338Serfs*3), that was also identified in healthy siblings. Identification of genetic causes in the proband helped us to provide relatives with precise genetic counseling and appropriate surveillance programs.
Background:Mast syndrome is a rare disorder belonging to the group of hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs). It is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the ACP33 gene, and is originally described in Old Order Amish. Outside this population, only one Japanese and one Italian family have been reported. Herein, we describe five subjects from the first three SPG21 families of German and Austrian descent.Methods:Five subjects with complicated HSP were referred to our centers. The workup consisted of neurological examination, neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessments, MRI, and genetic testing.Results:Onset varied from child- to adulthood. All patients exhibited predominant spastic para- or tetraparesis with positive pyramidal signs, pronounced cognitive impairment, ataxia, and extrapyramidal signs. Neurophysiological workup showed abnormal motor and sensory evoked potentials in all the patients. Sensorimotor axonal neuropathy was present in one patient. Imaging exhibited thin corpus callosum and global brain atrophy. Genetic testing revealed one heterozygous compound and two homozygous mutations in the ACP33 gene.Conclusion:Herein, we report the first three Austrian and two German patients with SPG21, presenting a detailed description of their clinical phenotype and disease course. Our report adds to the knowledge of this extremely rare disorder, and highlights that SPG21 must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated HSP outside the Amish community.
Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons, leading to progressive muscular atrophy and even paralysis. Spinal muscular atrophy usually associated with a defect of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN-1) gene. Classification of spinal muscular atrophy is based on the age of onset and maximum motor function milestone achieved. Although spinal muscular atrophy can be screened for in newborns, and even confirmed earlier genetically, this remains difficult in Third World countries such as Indonesia.
A 28-year-old Asian woman in the first trimester of her second pregnancy, was referred to the neurology department from the obstetric department. Her milestone history showed she was developmentally delayed and the ability to walk independently was reached at 26 months old. At 8 years old, she started to stumble and lose balance while walking. At this age, spinal muscular atrophy was suspected because of her clinical presentations, without any molecular genetic testing. She was married at the age of 25 years and was soon pregnant with her first child. At the gestational age of 32 weeks, her first pregnancy was ended by an emergency caesarean section because of premature rupture of the membranes. In this second pregnancy, she was referred early to the general hospital from the district hospital to receive multidisciplinary care. She and her first daughter underwent genetic testing for spinal muscular atrophy, which has been readily available in our institution since 2018, to confirm the diagnosis and prepare for genetic counseling.
Managing pregnancy in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy should be performed collaboratively. In this case, genetic testing of spinal muscular atrophy and the collaborative management of this patient allowed the clinical decision making and genetic counseling throughout her pregnancy and delivery.
This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of genetic testing using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) instead of tumor tissues in lung adenocarcinoma to break through its limitation. Separation system for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Vimentin expressing CTCs was constructed and used to capture CTCs in the blood samples of 57 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Genetic mutations of genes involved in targeted therapies were detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in tissues from these patients. Blood CTC samples with the gene mutations identified by tissue-NGS were selected and corresponding gene mutations were detected by Sanger sequencing. The specificity of the CTC separation system was 95.48% and the sensitivity was 90.85%. The average number of CTCs in the blood of patients with lung adenocarcinoma was 12.47/7.5 mL. Comparison of the tissue-NGS with the CTC-Sanger sequencing showed that the consistencies of genetic mutations of EGFR ( n = 24), KRAS ( n = 9), TP53 ( n = 19), BRAF ( n = 1), ERBB2 ( n = 2), and PIK3CA ( n = 3) were 92.31%, 75.00%, 86.36%, 50.00%, 66.67%, and 75.00%, with an overall consistency of 84.06%. The CTC separation system established in this study shows high specificity and sensitivity. CTCs can be used as a suitable alternative to tumor tissues that are difficult to obtain in clinical practice and overcome the difficulties in tumor tissue collection, which is of significance in guiding clinical medication and individualized treatment with significant clinical application value in terms of genetic testing for targeted therapies in tumor treatment.
A minority (10%–15%) of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common form of motor neurone disease (MND), are currently attributable to pathological variants in a single identifiable gene. With the emergence of new therapies targeting specific genetic subtypes of ALS, there is an increasing role for routine genetic testing for all those with a definite diagnosis. However, potential harm to both affected individuals and particularly to asymptomatic relatives can arise from the indiscriminate use of genetic screening, not least because of uncertainties around incomplete penetrance and variants of unknown significance. The most common hereditary cause of ALS, an intronic hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72, may be associated with frontotemporal dementia independently within the same pedigree. The boundary of what constitutes a possible family history of MND has therefore extended to include dementia and associated psychiatric presentations. Notwithstanding the important role of clinical genetics specialists, all neurologists need a basic understanding of the current place of genetic testing in MND, which holds lessons for other neurological disorders.
A 51-year-old man with known Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) presented with worsening lower extremity weakness and numbness. Following an episode of myelopathy two years before, he had been ambulating with a walker but over two weeks became wheelchair bound. He also developed a sensory level below the T4 dermatome to light touch, pinprick, and vibration. MRI of his cervical and thoracic spine showed a nonenhancing T2 hyperintense lesion extending from C2 to T12. At his presentation two years earlier, he was found to have a longitudinally extensive myelopathy attributed to his LHON. Genetic testing revealed a 3635 guanine to adenine mutation. MRI at that presentation demonstrated a C1-T10 lesion involving the central and posterior cord but, unlike the new lesion, did not involve the ventral and lateral horns. Given the similarity to his prior presentation and a negative evaluation for alternative etiologies, he was thought to have recurrent myelopathy secondary to Leber’s Plus. To our knowledge, recurrent myelopathy due specifically to the G3635A mutation in Leber’s Plus has not been reported previously.