Climate change has caused substantial shifts in the geographical distribution of many species. There is growing evidence that many species are migrating in response to climate change. Changes in the distribution of dominant tree species induced by climate change can have an impact not only on organisms such as epiphytes and understory vegetation, but also on the whole ecosystem. Cyclobalanopsis glauca is a dominant tree species in the mingled evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests of China. Understanding their adaptive strategies against climate change is important for understanding the future community structure. We employed the Maxent framework to model current suitable habitats of C. glauca under current climate conditions and predicted it onto the climate scenarios for 2041–2060 and 2081–2100 using 315 occurrence data. Our results showed that annual precipitation was the most critical factor for the distribution of C. glauca. In the future, increasing precipitation would reduce the limitation of water on habitats, leading to an expansion of the distribution to a higher latitude and higher altitude. At the same time, there were habitat contractions at the junction of the Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces. This study can provide vital information for the management of C. glauca, and serve as a reminder for managers to protect C. glauca in the range contraction areas.
We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.
In urbanized areas, wind disturbances can be intensified by anthropogenic stresses under which trees may become hazardous, creating serious threats and damages to nearby targets. Therefore, species with notably lower both wood mechanical properties and compartmentalization, such as pioneers, are considered to have higher wind damage risk if subjected to unfavorable growing conditions. Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.), are frequently found in both urban and peri-urban forests in Northeastern and Central parts of Europe, which strengthen the necessity for the evaluation of mechanical stability of such species. Therefore, static pulling tests were performed to compare the mechanical stability of the studied species in both urban and peri-urban forests. The loading resistance of the studied species differed, with birch being more stable than aspen, indicating aspen to be more prone to wind damage. Additionally, the mechanical stability of birch did not differ between trees growing in urban and peri-urban forests, suggesting static pulling tests are a suitable method for comparing trees from completely different growing conditions.
Context and Background. Active fires have the potential to provide early estimates of fire perimeters, but there is a lack of information about the best active fire aggregation distances and how they can vary between fuel types, particularly in large areas of study under diverse climatic conditions. Objectives. The current study aimed at analyzing the effect of aggregation distances for mapping fire perimeters from active fires for contrasting fuel types and regions in Mexico. Materials and Methods. Detections of MODIS and VIIRS active fires from the period 2012–2018 were used to obtain perimeters of aggregated active fires (AGAF) at four aggregation distances (750, 1000, 1125, and 1500 m). AGAF perimeters were compared against MODIS MCD64A1 burned area for a total of 24 fuel types and regions covering all the forest area of Mexico. Results/findings. Optimum aggregation distances varied between fuel types and regions, with the longest aggregation distances observed for the most arid regions and fuel types dominated by shrubs and grasslands. Lowest aggregation distances were obtained in the regions and fuel types with the densest forest canopy and more humid climate. Purpose/Novelty. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the effect of fuel type on the optimum aggregation distance for mapping fire perimeters directly from aggregated active fires. The methodology presented here can be used operationally in Mexico and elsewhere, by accounting for fuel-specific aggregation distances, for improving rapid estimates of fire perimeters. These early fire perimeters could be potentially available in near-real time (at every satellite pass with a 12 h latency) in operational fire monitoring GIS systems to support rapid assessment of fire progression and fire suppression planning.
Research Highlights: This study identified the cell cycle genes in birch that likely play important roles during the plant’s growth and development. This analysis provides a basis for understanding the regulatory mechanism of various cell cycles in Betula pendula Roth. Background and Objectives: The cell cycle factors not only influence cell cycles progression together, but also regulate accretion, division, and differentiation of cells, and then regulate growth and development of the plant. In this study, we identified the putative cell cycle genes in the B. pendula genome, based on the annotated cell cycle genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. It can be used as a basis for further functional research. Materials and Methods: RNA-seq technology was used to determine the transcription abundance of all cell cycle genes in xylem, roots, leaves, and floral tissues. Results: We identified 59 cell cycle gene models in the genome of B. pendula, with 17 highly expression genes among them. These genes were BpCDKA.1, BpCDKB1.1, BpCDKB2.1, BpCKS1.2, BpCYCB1.1, BpCYCB1.2, BpCYCB2.1, BpCYCD3.1, BpCYCD3.5, BpDEL1, BpDpa2, BpE2Fa, BpE2Fb, BpKRP1, BpKRP2, BpRb1, and BpWEE1. Conclusions: By combining phylogenetic analysis and tissue-specific expression data, we identified 17 core cell cycle genes in the Betulapendula genome.
The previous studies show soil microbes play a key role in the material and nutrient cycles in the forest ecosystem, but little is known about how soil microbes respond to plant distribution, especially in the soil bacterial community in woody bamboo forests. Cephalostachyum pingbianense (Hsueh & Y.M. Yang ex Yi et al.) D.Z. Li & H.Q. Yang, 2007 is known as the only bamboo species producing shoots all year round in natural conditions. Endemic to the Dawei mountain in Yunnan of China, this species is a good case to study how soil bacteria respond to plant endemic distribution. In this work, we assayed the soil chemical properties, enzyme activity, changes in the bacterial community along the distribution range of the C. pingbianense forest. The results showed that soil nutrients at the range edge were nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-deficient, and soil pH value and soil urease activity were significantly lower than that of the central range. No significant difference was detected in soil bacterial diversity, community composition, and function between the central and marginal range of C. pingbianense forest. Notably, the relative abundance of heterotrophy bacteria, such as Variibacter and Acidothermus, in the soil of the C. pingbianense forest was significantly higher than that of the outside range, which may lead to a higher soil organic carbon mineralization rate. These results imply that abundant heterotrophy bacteria were linked to the endemism and full-year shooting in C. pingbianense. Our study is amongst the first cases demonstrating the important role of heterotrophy bacteria in the distribution formation of endemic woody bamboos in special soil habitats, and provides insight into germplasm conservation and forest management in woody bamboos.
Teak is a globally valuable hardwood tree species, as its growth performance is important for timber productivity. The purpose of this study was to establish an effective management system for teak plantations in the Lao PDR. Using diameter at breast height (DBH) and height growth as significant indicators of growth performance, we investigated the relationship between tree growth curve parameters of teak and topographic conditions. Stem analysis data for 81 sample trees (three trees selected in canopy trees with predominant height in each plot) were examined for growth performance using the Mitscherlich growth function. The results of Spearman’s partial rank correlation indicated that the upper limits of DBH and tree height growth had significant negative correlations with the slope gradient and stand density. The curvature of DBH and tree height growth curves showed significant positive correlations with the slope form. Moreover, the elevation and slope gradient showed significant negative correlations with the curvature of tree height growth curve. However, the time lag of DBH growth showed a significant negative correlation with the slope position, while the slope gradient was positively correlated with the time lag of tree height growth. These results suggest that teak planted at lower slopes has faster growth rates and that there is an interaction with the gentle concave slope of this area.
The climate-induced changes in soil water patterns pose a serious threat to subtropical plantations. Mixed species stands have been advocated as an efficient way to enhance ecosystem stability. However, little is known about their possible impact on the soil water-holding capacity in the subtropics. In this study, we employed a stable hydrogen isotope to assess the contribution of rainfall to soil water (CRSW) in a pure Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation and in two mixtures of Chinese fir with Cinnamomum camphora or with Alnus cremastogyne after three different magnitudes of rainfall events in subtropical China. Furthermore, we used structure equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the relative importance of vegetation and soil properties on the CRSW. The results indicated that the CRSW did not differ among these three Chinese fir plantations after light rainfall, whereas the CRSW of moderate and heavy rainfall to soil water were 15.95% and 26.06% higher in Chinese fir plantation with Cinnamomum camphora, and 22.67% and 22.93% higher in Chinese fir plantation with Alnus cremastogyne than that in the pure Chinese fir plantation, respectively. SEM analysis showed that the vegetation biomass and soil properties significantly affected the CRSW following light rainfall, but the soil properties were the most important factors influencing the CRSW under moderate and heavy rainfall. Our findings demonstrate that the mixed conifer–broad-leaved plantation is a more effective strategy for improving the soil water-holding capacity than the pure conifer plantation in subtropical regions, which is conducive to coping with the frequent seasonal droughts and extreme precipitation events.
Estimating tree height is essential for modelling and managing both pure and mixed forest stands. Although height–diameter (H–D) relationships have been traditionally fitted for pure stands, attention must be paid when analyzing this relationship behavior in stands composed of more than one species. The present context of global change makes also necessary to analyze how this relationship is influenced by climate conditions. This study tends to cope these gaps, by fitting new H–D models for 13 different Mediterranean species in mixed forest stands under different mixing proportions along an aridity gradient in Spain. Using Spanish National Forest Inventory data, a total of 14 height–diameter equations were initially fitted in order to select the best base models for each pair species-mixture. Then, the best models were expanded including species proportion by area (mi) and the De Martonne Aridity Index (M). A general trend was found for coniferous species, with taller trees for the same diameter size in pure than in mixed stands, being this trend inverse for broadleaved species. Regarding aridity influence on H–D relationships, humid conditions seem to beneficiate tree height for almost all the analyzed species and species mixtures. These results may have a relevant importance for Mediterranean coppice stands, suggesting that introducing conifers in broadleaves forests could enhance height for coppice species. However, this practice only should be carried out in places with a low probability of drought. Models presented in our study can be used to predict height both in different pure and mixed forests at different spatio-temporal scales to take better sustainable management decisions under future climate change scenarios.
In order to study the key gene in internal causes of pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a departure from its vector beetle, Monochamus alternatus, we collected PWNs extracted from newly emerged M. alternatus and beetles 7 days after emergence. The total RNAs of the two groups of PWNs were extracted, transcriptomes sequencing was performed, and gene expression differences between the two groups of PWN were analyzed. It was found that the expression of the choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase gene (pcyt-1) was markedly up-regulated. After inhibition of pcyt-1 expression by RNA interference, the rate of lipid degradation in PWN decreased significantly, and the motility of PWN also decreased significantly. The analysis identified that phosphatidylcholine could promote the emulsification and degradation of neutral lipid granules in PWN, which provides sufficient energy for PWN departure from M. alternatus. The up-regulation of the gene pcyt-1 is an important internal factor for PWN departure from its vector.