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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 365-288
Mohammed Shamssain ◽  
Anisa Alhamadi ◽  
Siba Nezar Al Afandi ◽  
Tasneem Naeem Awadallah ◽  
Shatha Naeem Awadallah

Very few studies have been carried out on asthma and allergies in pre-schoolchildren. This is the first study of pre-school children with asthma and allergies in the United Arab Emirates. We studied 4,000 pre-schoolchildren from the United Arab Emirates: Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. The ages of the study group were between 1-5 years, and were 2,000 boys and 2,000 girls; they were randomly selected from kindergartens and nurseries. We used the standardised International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The mean (SD) age, height, weight and BMI were 3.3 (1.4) years, 92.0 (1.3) cm, 17.3 (5.2) kg, and 23.4 (9.3). The prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, “asthma” , “dry night cough”, and “exercise-induced asthma” were 40.4%, 43.8%, 37.6%, 26.5%, 36.1, and 37.6%, respectively. Boys had a significantly higher prevalence of wheeze ever and current wheeze than girls. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of speech limitation than boys. The prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, “itchy watery eyes” and “hay fever” were 42%, 40.5%, 39.1% and 46.9%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of “rhinitis ever”, “current rhinitis”, and “itchy watery eyes” than girls. The prevalence rates of “rash ever”, “current rash” and “eczema ever” were 38.9%, 33.7% and 58.0%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalence rates of rash ever, current rash, and eczema ever than girls. Children who were exposed to parental smoking have significantly higher prevalence rates of asthma, wheezing, and cough than those whom were not exposed. Children who breastfed more than 10 months had a significantly lower prevalence rates of “wheeze ever”, “current wheeze”, “speech limitation”, and “asthma”, than those whom breastfed less than 10 months. The prevalence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were very high. Breastfeeding was found to be protective for asthma. The study can be used as a baseline intervention project to reduce incidents of asthma and allergies in these children and to establish atopic march in order to implement strategies to improve the respiratory health and allergies in these children. Keywords: asthma, wheeze, night cough, rhinitis, eczema, pre-school children, paediatric asthma

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Alessio Matiz ◽  
Franco Fabbro ◽  
Andrea Paschetto ◽  
Cosimo Urgesi ◽  
Enrica Ciucci ◽  

In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality. Fear of COVID-19 scores were positively correlated with Negative Affect scores and negatively predicted by children's personality profile of resilience (calculated using scores on the Harm Avoidance and the Self-Directedness scales of personality). These results suggested that Italian primary school children, especially boys, maintained their pre-pandemic levels of affect (or restored them after the first COVID-19 wave) and partially diverged from the typical development of personality in an apparently positive sense, namely toward more courageous/optimistic and spiritual profiles. This sort of children's post-traumatic growth might also be attributed to children's family and education systems, which should continue to be supported to promote and maintain community mental health.

Waleed Abdualaziz Mohammad Dahag ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Taghreed Ahmed M Al-Kibsi ◽  
Hussein Shoga Al-Deen ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy ◽  

Introduction and objective: Mixed dentition space analysis methods via Tanaka-Johnston analysis are regularly used all over the world. Conversely, the appropriate of this analysis between different ethnic groups is dubious. The study aimed to test the appropriate of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis for Yemeni adults and to arise regression equations designed for Yemen population if needed.  Methods: The study included two hundred and twenty-seven (106 males and 121 females) Yemenis from Sana'a University, University of Science and Technology, and Al-Rehab Private Clinic. The mesiodistal widths of the four permanent lower canines, incisors, and premolars for the entire quadrants were determined with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.01 mm. To compare average presentation values ​​derived from this study with values ​​derived using Tanaka-Johnston equations, Student's paired t-test was used, as well as the chi-square (χ2) test used for appropriateness of fit. Result: Gender differences were observed in the total mesiodistal width of both canines and premolars in both arches as revealed by the t-test (p < 0.001). The sum of the actual mesiodistal width of the canines and premolars was compared with the expected widths derived from the Tanaka and Johnston equation and significant differences (p<0.001) were found. Regression analysis indicated that the sum of the mesiodistal width of the permanent mandibular incisors is a good predictor of that of un-erupted canines and premolars, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.61. Accordingly, two linear regression equations were developed to predict tooth width for Yemeni males and females. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that the Tanaka-Johnston analysis did not accurately predict the mesiodistal width of the unruptured canines and premolars of the Yemeni population. Moreover, new regression equations have been developed for the research sample that can be a standard for Yemen. However, further studies must be performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of these equations.                   Peer Review History: Received: 10 November 2021; Revised: 12 December; Accepted: 29 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] Rola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, [email protected] Similar Articles: PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES TO ANTERIOR TEETH AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN OCCLUSAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRIMARY DENTITION AMONG A SAMPLE OF YEMENI PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1465-1474
Annisa Permatasari ◽  
Deny Salverra Yosy ◽  
Achirul Bakri ◽  
Ria Nova

Background. Most of heart defects in children do not show typical clinical symptoms. Ten percent of the cases are late detected. Echocardiography is an examination with high sensitivity and specificity in detecting heart defects in children, but it cannot be performed by all health workers, expensive and not always available in hospitals. Auscultation is an important part of a physical examination that inexpensive, easy examination, and becomes a competency of all doctors. The aim of this study to determine the accuracy of the screening method by listening to murmurs on heart auscultation by various levels of physician competence. Methods. This is a diagnostic test of 250 elementary school children held in the pediatric ward of dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang from September to November 2019. The auscultation examination was performed by three pediatrics resident from three stages (i.e. junior, middle and senior), followed by echocardiography examinations by a pediatric cardiologist. Results. The highest sensitivity of auscultation was found in senior resident, 42.4%, while the lowest was found in junior resident, 12.1%. The results of the kappa analysis of the cardiac auscultation examination on the three examiners showed a poor level of agreement on junior stage  compared to senior resident (k = 0.189; CI = 0.033-0.346) and the level of agreement was sufficient in junior stage compared to middle stage resident (k = 0.297; CI = 0.134 -0.461) and middle stage compared to senior resident (k = 0.301; CI = 0.147-0.456). Conclusion. Experience and length of learning will affect the accuracy of the auscultation examination in detecting heart defects in children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 79-99
Ruhani Mat Min ◽  
Siti Sarah Brahim ◽  
Raba’Aton Adawiah Mohd Yusoff ◽  
Fazliyaton Ramley

Background and Purpose: Truancy is one of the top discipline problems in Malaysia and the national prevalence of truancy indicates a significant number of students are truant. Counselling at school aims at helping schoolchildren in personality development and discipline. This qualitative study aims to research the experiences of counselling on schoolchildren who were reported for truancy.   Methodology: The research participants involved ten schoolchildren who had played truant and were required to participate in counselling sessions. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations, and diary entries on two occasions for each participant. The data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify themes related to the participants’ experiences.   Findings: The findings showed that the reasons for truancy among the school children involve self and relationship with others. After being in sessions with school counsellors, the children reported being more responsible, which included behavioural, emotional and goal-based changes. The relationship with the school counsellor allowed them to experience belongingness, which supported them in choosing positive behaviour, emotions and goals, which is related to having a sense of responsibility.   Contributions: This paper argues that engaging in counselling with a school counsellor helped the schoolchildren to make responsible decisions about their behaviour, emotions and goals. The most important factor is the “relearning experience” in promoting responsibility among schoolchildren. Keywords: Qualitative research, truancy, belongingness, school counselling, responsibility.   Cite as: Mat Min, R., Brahim, S. S., Mohd Yusoff, R. A., & Ramley, F. (2022). Truancy among school children: Reasons and counselling experiences.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 79-99.

Aparna Gopalakrishnan ◽  
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen ◽  
Viswanathan Sivaraman ◽  
Meenakshi Swaminathan ◽  
Yee Ling Wong ◽  

2022 ◽  
Léa El Haddad ◽  
Tarek Souaid ◽  
Diana Kadi ◽  
Joya-Rita Hindy ◽  
Karim Souaid ◽  

Aim: Assess the knowledge and behavior of Lebanese parents when it comes to melanoma and its prevention in children. Methods: A survey, to be completed by parents, was sent through children from three schools. Results: During sun exposure only 23.5% of 1012 respondents were always covering enough areas of their children's skin and 74.1% did not always apply sunscreen to their children. Parents of private school children were three times more likely to apply sunscreen to their children when exposed to sun, four times more likely to reapply sunscreen every 2–3 h and 21 times more likely to use a higher sun protection factor. Conclusion: Sun protection in children is insufficient and sunburns are frequent, illustrating the need for melanoma awareness campaigns.

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